Colin Chapman Archive and Resource September 2015

Newsletter – Number 54

  1. Colin Chapman: A Man of Note
  2. The Fine Art of Motor Sport
  3. Compact Disk- an optional extra? Lotus Seven -The Front Disc
  4. “Lotus Originals”
  5. Newest Acquisitions to A&R Library/Book Review
  6. Lotus collectables
  7. Lotus on Youtube

1. Colin Chapman: A Man of Note


It was reported in City Am [–capitalist] Tuesday 21 July and Daily Mail, 22nd, July that the Bank of England sought public nominations for the image to appear on the replacement £20 note.

The Bank chose the theme of “visual arts” and set the condition that the individual:-

  • Be dead
  • Not “unduly divisive”

It’s reported that 30,000 entries were made and this represented approximately 400-600 submissions.

Amongst those suggested were:-

  • Alfred Hitchcock
  • Marie Tussaud
  • Colin Chapman
  • Charlie Chaplin
  • Beatrix Potter
  • Laura Ashley
  • Gerry Anderson
  • Alexander McQueen
  • Michael Winner
  • Tony Hart
  • Mel Smith
  • Tony Scott

The editors can understand the individuals suggested against the criteria adopted. Of course the term “visual arts” can be widely interpreted and Britain has rich heritage of artists, designers and film makers that might fit the bill.

Colin Chapman /Lotus are a natural inclusion from the perspective of:-

  • Visual iconography of his road racing car designs
  • His consultancy and related industrial design
  • The significance and indelible monogram that appears on Lotus cars
  • The international recognition of the Lotus logo remaining relevant and contemporary

As a play on words if we contemplate Colin Chapman appearing on a distinguished bank note we might define him as a notable individual in fact :-

  • Great
  • Famous
  • Pre eminent
  • Renowned
  • Acclaimed
  • Prominent
  • Celebrated
  • Recognized
  • Distinguished
  • Exceptional
  • Outstanding

It’s unlikely that Chapman will be selected, as it’s possibly that a female candidate will be considered desirable and appropriate. However it would be in Britain’s economic interests looking to the future particularly as Lotus are developing a SUV and will probably enter the Asian market.

Furthermore it would not be totally unacceptable and a president has been set with Lotus cars having appeared on British stamps [see A&R “The Stamp of Approval”]

Although Stirling Moss might have a more appropriate name for a British currency, Chapman and Lotus are assured to remain in circulation for a long time ……….You can Bank on it.

Exhibitions, Education and Economics

In the museum context the editors believe that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.

For these reasons our suggested outline Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. It’s suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.

From time to time it’s important to review and reevaluate historical achievement, and there is the possibility of running competitions with public participation supported with exhibitions to assist assimilation and examination of the evidence. Such competitions and exhibitions sit well with benchmarking and lend themselves to educational interpretation.

Furthermore they provide an opportunity to examine Chapman as designer and thereby in a wider context that has been generally assigned to him.

2. The Fine Art of Motor Sport

Walter Gotschke 1912-2000. [See  and]

 Part 1

 “He had always drawn as if possessed, his entire childhood had been filled with drawings wherever he went or happened to be he would draw. At first it was animals, standing sitting, jumping ………..horses, sheep goats, dogs”

Quoted by Gerhild Druecker-Gotschke [widow]

The A&R is committed to examining Lotus and motor sport in the widest possible context.

Walter Gotschke is an important artist to study as he captured Lotus cars and Chapman and their height of prowess on the track.

We feel that all the nuances and indeed the passion and beauty cannot be understood otherwise.

The machines are beautiful in their own right but the drama of the race and its associated activities are natural subjects for artists.

Furthermore there needs to be a more critical appreciation of applied beauty and representation. Convention and price has perhaps given some branches of the fine arts a place at the top of the hierarchy; Impressionism is a prime example but some motoring artists have been equally impressionistic possibly more so as they had to capture images that passed in a split second.

For some motor sport and representative art is considered inferior but we will hope to challenge this and perhaps place the art in a wider social context of our times. For some the motorcar has defined the 20C

In the 20C most of the arts have in some way deferred to engineering, many like the Futurists and Constructivists glorified the combination of speed and technology. In architecture and the Art Deco movement there was a desire to represent the modern and its associated power and speed.

The Bauhaus School was committed to the improvement of industrial and commercial   unification of technology with craft design and manufacture.

Through the representation of the car in fine art we hope to explore new perspectives and offer new interpretations and understandings. Along the way it will be appropriate to touch on marketing. Equally there may be scope to cross reference with some of the more creative writing related to the motorcar. Although perhaps seen by some as travel writing H.V.Moton set out to convey word pictures of his driving exploits.

In this regular series we will look critically at a range of artists and their styles and indeed include some technical drawing .We will look at artists from the dawn of motoring to the present day. A brief article will also touch on the techniques and materials used by those artists we are considering.

The A&R have had support from the guild of Motoring Artists and in due course will cover their work.

The Internet has an almost exhaustive source of imagery and we fully commend that our readers use this in conjunction with our articles to gain maximum enjoyment and interpretation. This is particularly appropriate for a study of Walter Gotschke. Subscribers can examine both photographs and other artist’s interpretations to fully appreciate the creative genius of Walter Gotschke.

We appreciate that art is subjective and welcome suggestions from our readers as to artists they might like to see reviewed.

Part 1: Content:

  • Brief Biography
  • Style and Technique
  • Oeuvre
  • War Artist
  • Commercial Art including Car Brochures and 1988 Porsche  Calendar

Part 2: Content:

  • Word pictures accompanying a few examples of Walter’s Work including the 1938 Coppa Accerbo
  • Lotus Imagery
  • Availability
  • References

Walter Gotschke a Brief Biography

Walter Gotschke is a motoring artist of world renown. The editors love his work and we are honoured to provide this review. In order to do Walter Gotschke justice this review is formed of two parts.

In compiling this review the editors have enjoyed considerable input and insights from Walter’s widow Gerhild Drucker-Gotschke.

Walter’s work can be bought in various formats and the postcards are exquisite affordable and enable those particularly interested in Walter’s skill and development to acquire images that capture his full oeuvre.

Quoted from the net

“Of those artists throughout the world who have dedicated themselves to the automobile only a select few have achieved worldwide renown, one of them being the German Walter Gotschke. His impressionistic gouaches not only portray the typical character of each race driver and his driving style, along with the authenticity of an historic event and cars true to the smallest detail, but also make the race atmosphere palpable so that one can almost hear and smell the event from his art.Walter Gotschke, the self-taught artist, born in 1912 in a village of imperial Austrian Silesia (now Czech Republic) lived and worked in Stuttgart, Germany since 1938.

He was already drawing passionately as a child, commencing with animals. Aged eleven he became fascinated by the first automobiles. From memory alone he tried repeatedly to draw the few cars that passed through his rural backwater. The later student of architecture experienced his first races in his homeland: the Ecce-Homo Hill climb, the Masaryk Grand Prix and others. By seventeen he was already producing his first race sketches which were published, followed a year later by the Masaryk Grand Prix poster. Alongside decades of advertising work for leading European automobile firms, Walter Gotschke’s favourite task was painting automobile races. During his latter period of life this evolved to become his chief activity until in 1985 an eye disease gradually turned into blindness due to old age. In the autumn of 2000 his eyes closed for ever.

The present editions are a mark of recognition for a great artist with a great passion”.

It’s believed that the artist was born c 1912.He moved and settled in Stuttgart.

The artist undertook commercial illustration i.e. advertising, for major car manufacturers in Europe. These included Mercedes, Daimler-Benz [promotional posters etc.  ] . Later Porsche and Ford of Cologne.

Walter was drafted during the war and worked as war artist illustrator. Although not an attractive subject it’s important to study this aspect of Walter’s work. By necessity he had to work at speed in dangerous conditions capturing the violence and technology of warfare which was increasingly motorised and technologically driven. In much of this work he captures the explosive action, destructive force of new armaments.

After the war he worked freelance. His work was taken up by several magazines and found a wide audience through “Road and Track “and “Automobiles Quarterly”

Style and Technique

Walter’s widow Gerhild in correspondence with the editors commented:-

“You can’t paint race scenes standing at a race track –
if you look on the sheet of paper the race car has several times surrounded the track – and you have seen nothing.
Walter made notes of the track (buildings, advertising etc.) before or after the race,
at home he looked into automotive magazines,
the cars and the special driving style of each driver he saved in his mind by looking.
A car and the driver is looking the same on each race track, so he didn’t visit many races –
if he knew the surrounding he could put in every race scene.
I have sketches in which cars are seen on a track they never drove – because Walter thought they did.

When Walter saw a print of an old race track in a book it was as if he was standing inside – he could turn the track into each angle.
He also could turn a BW information into colour – and every of his coloured paintings has the right half-tones if you turn it to black and white.”

Moreover he was able to realize movement and could paint it.

This is one side of his art –
the other side is – what people don’t realize – in his coloured paintings Walter made blots of paint, like the colours are falling on the retina –“

Walter Gotschke is considered Germany’s leading automobile artist with an international following and breadth of work/subject matter. Walter enjoyed a long and distinguished career. Many associate his style with the impressionistic and although there are similarities in some respects he goes beyond this.

Walter Gotschke was self-taught and drew from an early age. Significantly he had neither formal training teacher / mentor. Although the editors believe he inherited a technical appreciation from his father who was a blacksmith.

As a child he drew animals and possibly here he first learnt to capture movement and sudden changes of composition and perspective .Possibly he loved and had empathy with speed grace, speed and dignity. It’s possible too that he drew farm equipment and the articles his father made and repaired and again possibly he was interested in process of assembly and sought to visually analyse and dismantle complex interactive components.

Also later he trained as draughtsman and possibly became interested in formal composition and possibly mastered the art of technical illustration, rendering and many aspects of perspective. He typically works in gouaches or possibly watercolour and adopts a naturalistic impressionistic style. This is very lively, fresh, loose, and free and has a sketch like quality .It’s a style suited to capturing speed and movement with fluidity. In some aspects and subjects there is an ethereal element in his vision and treatment.Gotschke adopts a haze of bright but not over intense or worked, colours that seem to capture an inner soul of the machine and driver.

There is certain classicism in his best work and an element of poetry particularly in pre-war subjects.

Being self-taught Walter possibly had no rules or tradition/ convention to observe. It’s very possibly he experimented with technique but nothing can dent the inherent natural ability and gift. Motor racing is an exacting discipline for an artist. The subject moves with alarming speed and possibly never reappears on track in exactly the same manner. Hence the artist has to rely on indelible visual impressions and these have to be retained then regurgitated into visual expression. The Impressionists recommended painting in direct contact with nature in order that spontaneity would not be lost. This creates a vitality and extraordinary authenticity. A motor racing artist cannot paint on site in the same manner and if they are to achieve the authenticity and sense of time place, envelope, atmosphere etc. it requires massive retention of detail and mood. Walter Gotschke was the master of exposition and storytelling, even a poetic vision.

It’s possible that his series of calendars of “Silver Arrows” that most encapsulates this poetic vision.

Gotschke has a particular empathy with motor racing subjects in the rain and they glisten with damp rain soaked gloss

However this style can vary and on occasions it is more detailed and even slightly over worked by comparison and can lose its emotional content. Of course this might be due to the fact the commissioning source might have made a specific request.

The artist is considered to be one of the masters and one of the greatest automotive artists.

The editor feels his palpable communication stems from empathy with the subject and it’s hoped the following description of one of his work will convey this.

Many of his originals were executed on board [12x 8 inches and others 550mmx 600 mm for example] and he painted with gouache [see A&R articles and description of this material/ use].These were signed.

The gouache illustrations are lively and sketch like but in their simplicity they deceive as they capture so much; to the extent we process visual information and accept a reality. Walter often adopted crisp brush strokes and produced hazes of wash and captured the envelope of the moment and a totality of experience distilled into a fleeting image.

The editors believe that Walter possessed a touch of genius in his work and from the fine arts we detect some of the virility , humanity and spontaneity of Johan Barthold Jongkind and also perhaps from childhood Walter learnt to draw animals he shares some of the empathy as did Rembrandt Bugatti in his animal sculptures. The editors admire his use of colour which is bright but subtle in the extreme. Colour melt and blend with the composition and seem faultless and never overworked [normally the indication that an artist is struggling with the subject and its representation or the technical ability to express /execute]

Our word pictures help flesh out these observations – see Part 2]


It’s important and revealing to examine the sketch studies made by artists. In many respects it’s their shorthand. Walter Gotschke’s are significant. He drew both cars and motor cycle racing.

Some of his sketches depict a racing car leaving the track, and the driver battling to regain control. With a few strokes the artist is able to convey masses of information, he suggests the physics of an object as speed, the impending accident and the body language of the driver and his split second response. In many respects they work is intuitive, analytical and possibly more real and involving than a photograph.

The editors believe it’s important to examine these sketches as they feed into a fuller understanding of the artists completed studies. A charming sketch [possibly pen and ink –black on stark white background] is printed on a card which accompanies purchases.


Walter Gotschke undertook a considerable range of work /topics. Most of these are represented on his website. They include:-

  • Limited portraits
  • Landscapes
  • Townscapes/ cities and cultural history
  • Second World War
  • Commercial art / illustration /advertising
  • Motorsport and motor manufacturers
  • Art books
  • Mixed transport
  • Non motoring subjects
  • Posters

Some of the editor’s favourites amongst Walters work includes:-

  • 1934-39 Mercedes Benz series [including 1934 Mercedes , Caraciola.& 1935 German GP, 1937 Swizz GP Mercedes BenzW125
  • 1954 Italian GP [see word pictures Part 2]
  • 1970 Porsche Spyder 936 Le Mans
  • 1939 French GP
  • 1951 Swizz GP,Fangio [ see word pictures Part 2]
  • 1954 French GP,Fangio Mercedes Benz 196
  • 1955 ,Moss ,Mercedes Benz 196
  • 1958 German GP, Moss, Vanwall
  • 1963 ,Lotus ,Jim Clark, T.Taylor
  • Crowd scenes at motor races etc.
  • 1988 Porsche Calendar
  • 1970 Targa Florio

War Artist

Walter was drafted into the German army during the Second World War. He was posted as war artist and it’s important to study his work of this era. Like motor racing it contains the elements of death, danger and explosive action which although occurring in an instant has to be expressed. Walter had already developed the skills to equip him for the task and possibly the experience assisted him in his post war artistic development.

Commercial Art and Car Brochures/Illustration etc.

Walter’s commercial work is important. It has to sell the product. It has to grab attention and convey considerable amounts of information simultaneously. Much of this is subtle and possibly a various levels we process information directly and indirectly.

We have noted in our Design Heroes series that several significant Industrial /Product Designers had early experience in commercial illustration.

Before photography these illustrated brochures were important sales devices and possibly appeared in motoring magazines and in dealer’s windows as posters. In such work the artist has to process requirements including the technology and presence of the vehicle, the commissioning agent’s requirement for attention, sales and respectful, dignified and distinctive representation, but there is also a requirement that prospective purchasers can identify with the image presented. All of which has to be processed into a holistic convincing imagery.

Walter Gotschke was pass master at this and its part of his intellectual make up. The editors believe having examined his commercial illustration that it informed his style and helped him produce his graphic and involving motor racing depictions.


Figure 1.Walter Gotschke signed front cover image of sales brochure for Mercedes Benz. He also undertook other sales materials using various formats/materials.

Porsche 1988 Calendar

The comments made above a writ big in the Porsche calendar imagery. This quotation from the net helps explain:-

“Produced in 55cm x 60cm format, the factory calendars were commissioned by Porsche shortly before the end of the car-maker’s seven-year reign of consecutive victories at Le Mans. Stunning gouache illustrations of Richard von Frankenberg and Wolfgang von Trips in a 550 Spyder at Le Mans, the 917/30 Can-Am of Mark Donohue at Laguna Seca and Dan Gurney at the wheel of Type 801 at the 1962 French Grand Prix delighted Porsche collectors and motorsport art aficionados alike. Many of the monthly calendar pages were torn from their ring-bound spines by owners to be framed as individual prints. Intact calendars turn up from time to time, and to our eyes make enjoyable collector items. Original paintings by Gotschke are in a different league, often selling for more than £5,000 at auction.”

Walter Gotschke’s work sold, it was inspiring and indelible. Manufacturers new this .It gained them prestige and significant publicity /exposure. The artist conferred great status on the vehicles he represented and in fact lifted them from machines and gave them soul.


Water Gotschke and the Mercedes Racing Cars [see Part 2, references]

It’s believed that Walter may have illustrated several published works .The most important perhaps being the “Mercedes Benz Racing Car” to which he provided 29 images. [See references for exact details and ISBN etc.]

Continued in Part 2

3. Compact Disk- an optional extra? Lotus Seven -The Front Disc brake  

Lotus Components: A Series in Many Parts- The Contribution of Components in Colin Chapman’s Iconic Automobile Design


Figure 1.Image taken from the net.


Lotus cars sold

They were bought for their:-

  • Performance –road or track
  • Driving pleasure
  • Reputation and image
  • Aesthetics
  • Symbolism
  • Owner identification /personality extension etc.

All the above were integrated within a total framework design.

The above list is heavily dependent on a select group of components [either bought in proprietary or in house manufacture] that delivered the desired outcomes and met strict criteria.

Many of these components often contributed significantly to the overall aesthetic, many are extremely function and beautiful in their own right .They formed part of a complementary whole.

In this series we examine:-

  • Significant Individual components from all the model range
  • Briefly explain their role /contribution /evaluation
  • Analysis of form and function with regard to their integration
  • Provide sketches or photographs to illustrate
  • Learning opportunities

Understanding Lotus’s use of proprietary parts provides invaluable learning opportunities not just historical but right up to the present day. These lessons are not just applicable to automotive engineers/ designers but to the wider Industrial /Product Design professions.

The Skillful and creative adoption, absorption and integration of components was a powerful factor in the Chapman design methodology and contributed significantly to both competition and commercial success. It also feed his ability to mutate parts and materials to his desired ends.

The use of components is a fundamental skill of the Industrial Designer and the direct provision of added value.

Subscribers might like to see related A&R series:

  • “Rear View Mirror”
  • Lotus Power plants
  • Make or Break
  • Particles in suspension
  • Lotus Seven – various including aesthetics
  • Lotus Seven –brochures
  • Girling [Lotus sponsor ]

Role of Brake Component

For very basic but fundamental definitions Singh Reat provides some useful comments and calculations.

He states:-


These are mechanical devices which use the force of friction to overcome friction. The brakes in an automobile stop it while in motion and also hold it from rolling when not in motion.

When the brakes are applied on a moving vehicle, the kinetic energy or energy of motion of the vehicle is transformed into heat generated by the friction between the brake lining and drums .The heat generated is dissipated into the surrounding air.

Breaking force.

The breaking force is equal and opposite to the linear inertia on the vechicle.Neglecting retarding forces caused by rolling ,air  and gradient resistances , the force required to stop a vehicle is dependent on the weight of the vehicle and the deceleration rate or rate at which it is stopped.

Weight transfer during breaking. If maximum deceleration is to be achieved, the braking effort of each wheel must have the best possible relationship to the weight of the wheel. This is required due to the fact that during deceleration , there is a change in weight distribution  which is proportional to retardation .For  a given deceleration , the ratio of height of CG to length of wheel base determines the extent of weight transfer…………..

Brake efficiency.

It is the ratio between the retarding force and the weight of the vehicle .It is expressed as a percentage……….

Disc Brake

It consists of a disc held between two pads .The disc is attached to the axle in lieu of brake drum. The rotating disc is held up through the frictional force exerted by the brake pads. The action of brake pads is similar to the action of caliper brakes in an ordinary bicycle. It is due to this fact that this brake is known as caliper brake…………

Handbrake or parking break

This break is operated by a hand lever and is used to hold the vehicle while it is stationary. It is used during parking……….it’s also used in emergency when the service brake fails or proves ineffective.

Brake effectiveness .The following factors contribute to the effeteness of the brakes:-

  • Area of brake lining
  • Amount of pressure applied
  • Radius of drum
  • Radius of car wheel
  • Coefficient of friction of breaking surfaces
  • Coefficient of friction between tyre and road surface

Factors controlling the stop of an automobile:-

  • Speed and load
  • Road surface
  • Tyre tread
  • Gradient
  • Number of wheels breaking
  • Coefficient of friction of breaking surface
  • Pressure applied by leverage
  • Pressure applied through energization
  • Weight transfer
  • Breaking force of engine

Lotus Seven Context

Coulter Comments

“Jack Richards Competition secretary of Club Lotus bought an early Seven built to a specification similar to Edward Lewis’s car, with Climax engine, de Dion rear suspension and disc brakes.

Tested by Sports Car & Lotus Owner in April 1958 it was described as a “one in a million sports car” .It was beautifully prepared with extensive chroming and polishing of the 80 bhp Climax engine. Top speed of this formidable little car was above 100 mph mark. The front suspension was standard S1 Seven, but with discs brakes. The discs at the rear were inboard”

Coulter features photographs of this specific car registered TBY 484.

Weale Comments

“Early production series 1 cars employed twin leading shoe 9” diameter Girling drum brakes at the front…………..Front disc brakes were fitted to certain series 1 cars to special order, but did not become cheap enough for Lotus to supply them as standard equipment for the Seven until suitable ones appeared in the Triumph range and these 9” discs were fitted to all except the most basic series 2’s from 1963.”

Ortenburger Comments

The editors paraphrase that some series 1 cars that were special versions were fitted with a Girling alloy caliper disc brake at the front

Lotus and Sports car Owner, 1958

Writing in an article entitled “This One is Different” of Seven [TBY484] the testers observed:-

“Faultless Brakes”. We can find no fault in the breaking department –although some disc brakes on these cars have been found to grab at times. Firm pressure ion the pedal is necessary but braking effort is very progressive. There was no squealing and no locking of wheels except under heavy pedal pressure at slow speeds.”

Drawing: Form, Function and Aesthetics

Information from the net assists with an appreciation of form and function:

“A disc brake is a type of brake that uses calipers to squeeze pairs of pads against a disc in order to create friction that retards the rotation of a shaft, such as a vehicle axle, either to reduce its rotational speed or to hold it stationary. The energy of motion is converted into waste heat which must be dispersed. Hydraulic disc brakes are the most commonly used form of brake for motor vehicles but the principles of a disc brake are applicable to almost any rotating shaft.

Compared to drum brakes, disc brakes offer better stopping performance because the disc is more readily cooled. As a consequence discs are less prone to the brake fade caused when brake components overheat. Disc brakes also recover more quickly from immersion (wet brakes are less effective than dry ones).

Most drum brake designs have at least one leading shoe, which gives a servo-effect. By contrast, a disc brake has no self-servo effect and its braking force is always proportional to the pressure placed on the brake pad by the braking system via any brake servo, braking pedal, or lever. This tends to give the driver better “feel” and helps to avoid impending lockup. Drums are also prone to “bell mouthing” and trap worn lining material within the assembly, both causes of various braking problems.

The brake disc (or rotor in American English) is usually made of cast iron, but may in some cases be made of composites such as reinforced carbon–carbon or ceramic matrix composites. This is connected to the wheel and/or the axle. To retard the wheel, friction material in the form of brake pads, mounted on a device called a brake caliper, is forced mechanically, hydraulically, pneumatically, or electromagnetically against both sides of the disc. Friction causes the disc and attached wheel to slow or stop.

On automobiles, disc brakes are often located within the wheel.

The development disc-type brakes began in England in the 1890s, but they weren’t practical or widely available for another 60 years. Successful application required technological progress, which began to arrive in the 1950s, leading to a critical demonstration of superiority at the Le Mans auto race in 1953. The Jaguar racing team won, using disc brake equipped cars, with much of the credit being given to the brakes’ superior performance over rivals from firms like Ferrari, equipped with drum brakes. Mass production quickly followed with the 1955 Citroën DS.

Disc sketch

From all our observations it can be understood that the mechanical properties of the disc brake was a perfect complement to Chapman design methodology.

The design, appearance, materials etc. of the Girling disc brake was performance orientated.

It complemented the overall design and fitted into an integrated hierarchy of design imperatives.

Furthermore it was simple in operation, accessible and easy to service. It simply looked and did exactly what it ought. Studied in conjuction with other suspension components [see A&R article “Particles in Suspension” it’s easy to understand that Chapman and his colleagues at Lotus took care to select and adopt componentry that was first most functional but also sympathetic to aesthetic they sought.

Within this there are important lessons for all designers .The disc brake would have contributed to sales. Although expensive and perhaps not massively an improvement it was of the moment and certainly conferred on the Seven this indelible image of professional sports car in thought, detail and aspects of execution.

Lotus Seven Series 1: Production Numbers

Taylor in the “Lotus Book” suggests that 242 SI cars were produced c 1957-1960.

Learning/ Evaluation Opportunities

Our learning /educational opportunities are intended to be challenging thought provoking and requiring  additional research and/or analysis.

These opportunities  are particularly designed for a museum/education center location where visitors would be able to enjoy access to all the structured resources available in conjunction with any concurrent exhibition.

In this instance we suggest the following might be appropriate:-

Understanding the potential of componentry particularly proprietary items provides some of the following learning:-

  • Describe the differences between drum and disc brakes
  • Explore relationship of chapman design methodology , handling and weight to breaking
  • Was there a viable alternative to the part under consideration?
  • Is what might it have been /cost?
  • What is the importance of ergonomics  and how does it influence modern automobile design?
  • Does excessive safety/ and or ergonomics impact negatively on aesthetics
  • What is the impact of standardization of platforms through mark ranges and indeed shared with other manufacturers? Could uniformity ultimately impact on sales even if economies of scale improved?
  • Enumerate Lotus bought in components
  • How has mass production and proprietary parts assisted the specialist car market?
  • Produce an engineering drawing of a selected component and consider the specification of the materials and assembly process, costs and volumes
  • Explore an enumerate components used in other Industrial Design fields

Exhibitions, Education and Economics

In the museum context the editors believe that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.

For these reasons our suggested outline Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. It’s suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.

In particular we consider that there is considerable opportunity to host exhibitions that display componentry in its original form, its manufacture and the eventual adoption, incorporation into Lotus cars.

Such exhibitions provide the chance to further explore the educational skills a sets offered in Learning Opportunities. Additionally it’s possible to explore how components were and are mutated into other design fields and relate to current practice. The technology and computerization offer many interactive experiences related to learning opportunities that will stretch imagination and conceptualization .Furthermore such experiences and experiments can be structured to relate to other branches of Industrial/Product Design.

They are complementary to the possibility that the museum /education center can fulfill the role of the “Exploratory -Laboratory”

Conclusion: “The whole is greater………”

Chapman’s design and manufacturing methodology rather confirms the adage that “the whole can be greater than the sum of the parts”.

It’s an interesting an important study to consider deployment of components. It contributes to aesthetics, assembly economics and sales [attractive components/ known accepted performance and servicing ability etc.]

It is equally and mutually relevant and beneficial to the component manufacturer.

Chapman and his colleagues often took the best / most appropriate mass produced item and almost reinvented it in its service to design objectives. In this manner many components acquired a new status and indeed their aesthetic was enhanced surrounded by the Chapman conceptual whole.

It’s also extremely significant how many of these components were also used in Lotus competition cars. This created a powerful dynamic and interrelationship. Many components:-

  • Performed well in competition gaining beneficial publicity and sales
  • Both the component and racing reputation carried through to road cars and assisted sales
  • The component manufacturer gained disproportionate publicity and assisted products sell in other applications
  • All together a beneficial spiral was commenced. Publicity of the era [see dedicated articles on each sponsor / manufacturer] often opted to highlight the Lotus dimension in publicity material. In fact there was a powerful synergy.

Subscribers are directed to A&R dedicated article on Girling where we expand on the manufacturer’s history, products and list more extensively in which their components were used. The relationship between Lotus and Girling is substantial and worthy of close study and has lessons for Engineering, Industrial Design and Manufacturing disciplines.

Along the way it’s possible too to study the wider British motor component industry and how it has helped foster the specialist car manufacturers.


Subscribers are directed to our articles on Lotus Seven that contain an extensive bibliography. Of special interest are:

The Magnificent Seven.Rees.Haynes.2007.

ISBN: 9781844254101

Lotus & Caterham Seven.Tipler.Crowood.2005

ISBN: 1861267541

Lotus Seven.Weale.Osprey.1991.

ISBN: 185532153X

Lotus Caterham Seven. Unique Books.

ISBN: 1841553778

The Lotus & Caterham Sevens.Coulter.MRP.1986.

ISBN: 0947981063

Lotus and the Independents.Ortenburger.Coterie.2004.

ISBN: 1902351126

The Automobile.H.Singh Reyat.Chand.2013.

ISBN: 8121902142

Industrial Design A-Z.C&P Fiell.Taschen.

ISBN: 3822863106

Please note the editors of the A&R attempt to give the broadest spectrum of references but not all are available for consultation in an article. However by noting their existence it may assist students in their research.

*Items in italics non A&R library books.

4.0 “Lotus Originals”

This article provides brief details of the Lotus retail outlet based in London, Picadilly.All our subscribers, Lotus enthusiasts and tourists are encouraged to visit.

The shop has a pole position located right on Piccadilly Circus next to the underground station.

The postal address is:-

52 Regent Street, London, W1B 5DX.

This attractive shop retails the following relating to Lotus:-

  • Luxury apparel
  • Luggage
  • Gifts
  • Toys and
  • Limited edition collectables

When the editor recently visited two cars were also on display and the public were allowed to sit in these and to take photographs. The shop was animated and families found plenty of interest.

The staff were polite and enthusiastic.

The editor noted complementary to the list above:-

  • Clothes sportswear and Lotus FI team logo items
  • A range of scale models and an extremely impressive large scale model in black and gold livery of FI car
  • Scalextric racing sets
  • A range of accessories
  • Models of the helmets worn by famous Lotus drivers

There were items for all taste, gender and budget.

The shop has been in existence since 2010.It has a prime position, so easily accessible to all. The shop has double aspect layout and disability access is available.

The editors believe it’s an attractive proposition in the right location. Lotus enthusiasts have the opportunity in London to connect with Lotus history and sites not least Carnaby Street and the old Lotus factory site at Hornsey.

Exhibitions, Education and Economics

Should a museum be established devoted to Lotus or Colin Chapman the editors believe that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.

For these reasons our suggested outline Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. It’s suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.

The editors would like to think that commercial merchandising might be optimized across both outlets and that complementary stock could be sold.

The editors commend this means of promoting the brand. They feel that the shop has all the ingredients to succeed .It is ideally placed and for all those who have cultural interests will find London’s galleries and museums close at hand.

The editors understand a Historic Car show is being planned for Alexandra Palace later in the year. We suggest to all those visiting to take advantage of the proximity of Hornsey and Lotus Originals, Piccadilly.

See: or Lotus Piccadilly

Colin Chapman: “Someone has to draw the line………..”

“Utility is one of the principal sources of beauty……….the fitness of any system or machine to produce the end for which it was intended , bestows  a certain propriety and beauty  upon the whole, and renders the very thought and contemplation of it agreeable”

Adam Smith, 1759

“Are not the excellence, beauty and correctness of every manufactured article or living thing, creative, or action to be tried only by a reference to the purpose intended in their construction or in their natural constitution?

Plato: “The Republic”

When you wish to produce a result by means of an instrument do not allow our self to complicate it by introducing many subsidiary parts but follow the briefest way possible”

Leonardo de Vinci

Introduction: An out line

The editors consider this one of the most important analytical articles we have written about Colin Chapman.

We consider his conceptual powers and the ability to articulate them through meaningful drawings gets to the core of the man and the possible source of his design methodology, aesthetic sensitivity and achievements as an Industrial Designer.

Colin Chapman might be considered something of a polymath.

The skills that justify this are:-

  • Designer
  • Innovator/inventor/patent holder
  • Entrepreneur
  • Educator /developer in his capacity of employer
  • FI race team owner/strategist designer and multiple World Championship manufacturer

What made Chapman special is that these skills and attributes were constantly interactive and feed each other.

Great attention has been given to Chapman as the Formula 1 Team owner/ strategist and race car engineer designer but it’s often overlooked that fundamental to his ability to design was the ability to draw.

This is often taken for granted but drawing is an extremely important skill and easily underestimated.

In the editors estimation Chapman had considerable conceptual powers that were given fullest expression because he could articulate them in drawings.

Tony Rudd commented of Stan Hope of BRM who used to say: “If you can draw it I can make it; it was with difficulty sometimes.”

Chapman could draw components that could be made or he could instruct a draughtsman with a sketch. When briefing his engineers or indicating lines of research he could provide diagrams and conceptual sketches often annotated with outline measurements.

The evidence of the iconic designs produced by Chapman and in conjunction with many engineers at Lotus are that Chapman could conceive, draw, and work out details on paper.  Most significantly the function had to be delivered with the highest regard for an engineering aesthetic; the means by which function /fitness for purpose is lifted above mere utility and elevated into simple elegance and a means by which it resonated with the viewer.

In this article we will:-

  • Explore and enumerate Chapmans raw drawing ability
  • Consider the importance of this skill and its contribution to his achievements
  • Contest that drawing ability and aesthetic sensitivity informed Chapman’s designs and the creation of some of the world’s most iconic automobiles
  • Examine the basics of technical /engineering drawing
  • Bench mark Chapman and some automobile design peers
  • Provide some learning opportunities and recommend drawing as an analytical device for our subscribers

 Line Up: Automobile Design /Draughtsman Engineers of Distinction

The list includes some of the most notable design engineers; we are not looking at stylists.

  • Ettore Bugatti
  • Lancia
  • Porsche
  • Dante Gioacosa
  • Gabriel Voisin
  • Alec Issigonis
  • Frank Costin

Of these Bugatti and Issigionis have left a body of work and drawings that can be examined with reasonable ease and a variety of quality books and extensive archive. Both were holistic in the way and their drawings in three dimensions capture the interaction of components and the articulation of form and function.

Colin Chapman easily stands alongside these may and possibly excel in certain respects.

The editors strongly recommend reference to their drawings for benchmarking. The work “The Designers” by Setright is a particularly good reference source.

Subscribers might like to see A&R article our comparison of Chapman, Bugatti and Lyons. [Motoring Icons of the 20th C]

Drawing and Engineering Drawing [from the net]

“An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.

Engineering drawing (the activity) produces engineering drawings (the documents). More than merely the drawing of pictures, it is also a language—a graphical language that communicates ideas and information from one mind to another.[1] Most especially, it communicates all needed information from the engineer who designed a part to the workers who will make it.

Relationship to artistic drawing

Engineering drawing and artistic drawing are both types of drawing, and either may be called simply “drawing” when the context is implicit. Engineering drawing shares some traits with artistic drawing in that both create pictures. But whereas the purpose of artistic drawing is to convey emotion or artistic sensitivity in some way (subjective impressions), the purpose of engineering drawing is to convey information (objective facts). One of the corollaries that follows from this fact is that, whereas anyone can appreciate artistic drawing (even if each viewer has his own unique appreciation), engineering drawing requires some training to understand (like any language); but there is also a high degree of objective commonality in the interpretation (also like other languages). In fact, engineering drawing has evolved into a language that is more precise and unambiguous than natural languages; in this sense it is closer to a programming language in its communication ability. Engineering drawing uses an extensive set of conventions to convey information very precisely, with very little ambiguity”

The Engineers Alphabet

From the above remarks we note engineering drawing is like precise language .The engineer’s alphabet reinforces this and provides example and comparison.

This concept is brought home in “Brunel: In love with the impossible”. [See also A&R article devoted to Brunel.]

Chapman and Brunel had much in common not least they could complete engineering drawings and sketches.

In the chapter entitled “Brunel and the Art of Engineering Drawing” the authors explain how Brunel “developed such extraordinary acute powers of observation”. They go on to explain the value of drawing to Brunel and engineers. They suggest draughtsmanship is a discipline that is:-

“Descriptive, geometrically accurate, drawings are among the engineers tools ….”Of prediction and analysis”……….that greatly expands the capacity for sustained innovation within design, construction and manufacture”

The practicality and desirability of draughtsmanship is reinforced by Keith Duckworth:-

“It costs you very little to scrub out drawings on paper and to start again. As soon as you have things in the metal, and you have to try to make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear, life becomes expensive ………….and development is only necessary to rectify the ignorance of designers”

Childhood Talent: Not toeing the line

Crombac includes an extract from Colin chapman’s school report when he was 10 years 2 months old. [July 1938]

In Drawing and Handiwork he gained 85% with the teachers comment that “shows great keenness and should do well judging by present ability”

See drawing by Colin when he was five and half years old published in Haskell “Colin Chapman: Lotus Engineering”

“The drawing shows a clear understanding of the physical objects involved and the method to be used. A good idea of scale is present and –most revealing –the whole is in the form of a flow chart.

It is interesting to note that this [allowing for the differences due to young age] was exactly the type of information Chapman was to use to convey his ideas to his designers for many years and over many different products. Sufficient information is given to convey the ideas without wasting effort on detail which the intended user is assumed to have the skill to be able to supply”

Colin Chapman from quite early on was showing an interest in mechanics or perhaps the assembly and logistics / management of concepts and projects. He did well in the sciences. The various biographies also explain he could be distracted.

By the time he entered university he was a reasonably competent draughtsman capable of producing an outline assembly and body drawing for a car in the conventional three angles.

Colin Chapman: His line of business

Possible the quotation that most encapsulates Chapman /Lotus design methodology is given in Definitions of Philosophy of Lotus Engineering Policy. [1975]This was developed by Rudd and Chapman. [It is quoted in Ludvigsen.]:-

“The most elegant and effective and traditional Lotus solution is the one with the least parts effectively deployed”

In his introduction Peter Windsor refers to Colin Chapman the designer as:-

“At Lotus Colin Chapman epitomised the craftsman genius”

Peter Warr is quoted as saying:-

“One day Colin was looking at the back of the car when he suddenly said “why don’t we make the wing mounting serve a dual purpose? We looked puzzled and then a few minutes later he produced a sketch .This sort of thing can go on and on”



“Chunky used to invite me to his home in Cringleford for dinner one night a week. We discussed the new FI car the type 72, with variable rate torsion bar suspension, which he was drawing on his board at home”

Relating to design outside the motor car, Colin designed aspects of power boats:

“The flybridge steering position beautifully sleek, styled by Chunky himself”


On Chapman he commented:-

“He had an exceptionally strong sense of the rightness of design which he sought with passionate logic…………….history has proved him to be one of the most intelligent purposeful and creative designers of high performance cars………”

One of the most useful works on Chapman is that of Carl Ludvisgen because he features the access to Colin Chapman archive held by classic Team Lotus. Carl has included many of the drawings made by Colin’s hand. He sums up with a caption relating to hub illustration:-

“Colin Chapman’s artistry in the conception of refined suspension components had few rivals. These were his late 1970’s ideas for hub designs”

Carl’s book is an excellent reference because it gives further critical examples and historical precedents.

Chapman Drawings and Sources: In line

  • Notes and sketches for Mk.X from his note book quoted in Crombac

Quoted in Ludvigsen

  • Lotus 30 family range proposal dated 3/10/1963
  • Transaxle detail for Mk.12? dated c 1957
  • Schematic layout of Indianapolis single seater dating from mid-1960.
  • “             “ F1              “        “         “ c1977
  • Hub designs dating from late 1970’s
  • Sketch of “Optimal basic structure”
  • Future specification of F1 car c 1975
  • Venturi and other dimensioned sketches for Type 80
  • Lotus Mk.III and IV ‘ drawings published in “Lotus: The Early Years by late Peter Ross
  • The Lotus Seven .Tipler reproduces a drawing of the Lotus Seven “said to have been drawn by Colin Chapman himself with various amendments dating from 26th September 1957 to 30th April 1959.” The editors quote Coulter [relating to the Seven]  for convenience and brevity:-

“By the spring of 1957 Colin Chapman had a last found the time to turn his thoughts to the new car, maybe even drawing a little inspiration for it from the special that Lewis had built.

Working at his drawing board at home in Barnet, Chapman quickly put his thoughts down on paper and came up with the overall plan for the Lotus Seven.”

Coulter quotes Chapman:-

“there wasn’t much to it really .It was all pretty well known stuff the sort of thing you could dash of in a weekend”

This was not understatement for impact it was reality. First it alluded to Chapman’s ability to draw and second his thorough understanding of relationships. Components and structural requirements.

Laying it on the line: Guidance to Draughtsmen-Outline and sometimes firing line

It’s reputed that Chapman would guide a draughtsman through the objectives and constraints until the point it could be reduced no further and then Chapman would exclaim “You see it designs itself”

The essence of design here is similar to the functionalism of the modernist architects and the Bauhaus school where design is objective and not the ego of the designer being expressed.

Setright expressed it when he said:-

“The Lotus is as much a machine for driving as the house by Corbusier is a machine for living”

Setright also attributed to Chapman that be possessed “An obsessive and almost malign objectivity”

However Chapman did require draughtsmen produce work within the Lotus cannon. Those that did not could be subject to severe criticism although it’s been proved on occasions they were right and hew wrong.

Lineage: 50 Land mark Designs.

In “How to Design like a Pro” the author includes a section of designs considered land mark and he prefaces his selection with:-

“we focus on those designs which launched new shapes onto our roads, those designs which have changed the way we use our cars or think about them, and those fresh design ideas so powerful they changed the way the whole automobile industry thought…………our chosen fifty have in common is that they stand still further out from the crowd as the true landmarks through which the evolution of the automobile can be traced”

The Lotus inclusion in the list comprises:-

  • Lotus Elite, 1957
  • Lotus Seven ,1957

Of the Elite [Lotus 14] Setright was to observe:-

“Breath taking in its beauty, heart breaking in its fallibility, utterly right in its conception and unutterably wrong in its execution, the Lotus Elite was an aesthetic triumph and a commercial failure”

The editors might also suggest the inclusion of The F1 designs to include:-

  • Lotus 25
  • Lotus 49
  • Lotus 72

Education, Exhibitions and Economics: On line

The editors believe that in a museum context that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.

For these reasons our suggested Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we suggest merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. It’s suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.

In particular the editors feel there are a number of potential exhibition themes. Some titles include:- 

“The Line of Least Resistance”

Definition from the net:-

“The path of least resistance is the physical or metaphorical pathway that provides the least resistance to forward motion by a given object or entity, among a set of alternative paths. The concept is often used to describe why an object or entity takes a given path.”

“Between the Lines”

“Drawing on Experience”

“Drawing a Conclusion”

All of which have the potential to interpret Chapman as the designer-draughtsman and provide direct and immediate learning/ educational opportunities. It would be possible to use much of the material set out in this article.

Chapman as we know has left many drawings which can be supported by displays of how individual parts and made and their contribution to the whole automobile. In fact it’s possible to show every stage of assembly from conceptual design guidance through drawing to manufacture and race/road use.

His drawings get be set against others mentioned in order to help make comparison and evaluation. His drawings etc. can be shown against his disciples in order that his inspiration can be seen influencing design evolution.

Chapman has inspired designers to the present day including Gordon Murray [A&R article in preparation] so it becomes possible to provide a line of continuity which particularly demonstrates his commitment to light weight, high performance efficiency.

Such exhibitions can also demonstrate Chapman’s acknowledgement of other designers like Frank Costin and the remarkable aerodynamic body shapes they used to gain competitive advantage. This might be of great interest and relevance to those interested in sustainability and fuel economy.

Drawing Conclusions and Learning Opportunities

The editor’s drawings are far from perfect but they do serve a purpose. Not least to encourage students to draw but also as assistance towards aesthetic appreciation of design. We are aware that Colin Chapman was a competent draughtsman .Examples of his work are illustrated in “Lotus the Early Years” and “Inside the Innovator”

The editors consider freehand drawing provides some skills and discipline worthy of cultivation in the engineer and designer. These skills are summarized as:-

  • The discipline of observation and recording
  • A means of expression and interpretation, including the ability to articulate and visualize a mental concept into physical object
  • An ability to relate form and function, internal and external relationships etc.
  • An ability to conceptualize and form mental 3D images that can be rendered on paper and transferred to CAD etc.
  • An ability to consider aesthetics and the sculptural quality of an object including shape ,line and colour
  • An ability to use drawing as a problem solving devise, i.e. anticipating and checking in advance of manufacture also to share and examine critically
  • As a vocabulary or short hand form of technical expression that is readily shared with others who might be contributing in manufacture of specialist components
  • A means to explore viabilities and interrelate design with manufacturing realities
  • A ready quick and responsive means of sketch and comparing alternatives

The editors invite our subscribers to experiment with drawing .Although analysis and interpretation is reasonably objective there is considerable scope for personal and subjective interpretation and the editors advocate the role of drawing to develop visual awareness and literacy as an analytical tool potentially as sharp and incisive as the surgeon’s scalpel.

We invite our subscribers to submit their work / drawings as it might have the potential to educate and inspire others whilst also acting as catalyst for further articles from the A&R.

Lotus 20

Figure 1.Editors drawing offered as encouragement to subscribers to attempt sketching and drawing. This drawing is created directly from a period photograph and the editor has attempted to understand and express the quality, colour shape, form and texture of the surfaces of the materials use. Chapman and his designers aspired to an aesthetic and their show cars would resonate with potential customers.

Note the coil spring dampers deliberately not fully drawn in allowing clarity of the drive mechanism

Line out: Conclusion

It is very evident that Colin Chapman was a competent draughtsman; certainly able to represent complex technical subjects and concepts in a manner practical engineer/ craftsmen could translate into reality or be developed by others.

Chapman possessed a rare engineering aesthetic .He was a cultured man of taste and demanded more than utility .Each of his masterpieces like good architecture possesses a well-articulated functional beauty born of his essential functionality and fine proportion .

Chapman recognized the skills of other designers and commissioned them .Where adopted they contributed and extended the Lotus mystique.

It’s a recognized fact that many Lotus cars are considered automobile icons and a recent major museum exhibition confirms this.

The editors contend that Chapman would only permit designs of exceptional functional performance  because of his own highly developed personal aesthetic discipline accompanied by an appreciation of well-proportioned sculptural form. These were thoroughly integrated and structured and the editors see the evidence that his ability to draw sharpened and accentuated this awareness.

Chapman as a gifted Industrial Designer made his mark on paper and in metal. His line lives on and remains an indelible example, inspiration to design engineers and all of those who are moved by functional beauty.

Lotus 7 S2

The editor’s quick sketch of rear end of Lotus Seven. Although there is no evidence that Chapman deliberately made 3D sketches it’s a certainty that this is how he comprehended the Seven and this appearance is a direct result of the body chassis drawings he made. See text above.




Reference: Just a quick line

Brunel: In Love with the Impossible. Bristol Cultural Development Partnership.2006.

ISBN: 0955074207

Brunel’s Britain.Beckett.David & Charles.1980.

ISBN: 0715379739

Art of the Formula 1 Race Car. Stuart Codling. Voyager. [Motorbooks] 2010.

ISBN: 9780760337318

Drawing and Painting Cars.M.Turner

How to Design Cars like a Pro.T.Lewin.Motorbooks .2003.

ISBN: 0760336414

Car& Transportation Design. Design Diffusion.2006

ISSN: 17226546

Tony Rudd. Patrick Stephens.1993

ISBN: 1852604131

Colin Chapman’s: Lotus Engineering.Haskell.Osprey.1993.

ISBN: 1855323761

Colin Chapman.Crombac.Patrick Stephens.1986.

ISBN: 0850597331

Colin Chapman.Ludvigsen.Haynes.2010.

ISBN: 9781844254132

Lotus –The Early Years.Ross.Coterie.

ISBN: 1902351126

Lotus & Caterham Seven.Tipler.Crowood.1995.

The Lotus and Caterham Sevens.Coulter.MRP.1986.

ISBN: 0947981063

ISBN: 1852238585

British Auto Legends: Classics of Style and Design.Zumbrunn & Heseltine.Merrell.2009.

ISBN: 9781858944944

The Designers.LJK Setright.Weidenfeld and Nicholson.1976.

ISBN: 0297770

Rendering with Pen and Ink.Gill.Thames and Hudson.1984

ISBN: 0500680264

Draughtsmanship. Fraser Reekie.Edward Arnold.1969.

ISBN: 0713132175

Manual of Graphic Techniques. Porter and Greenstreet.Butterworth Architectural.1980.

ISBN: 0408500123

Drawing Secrets Revealed; Basics.Parks.Northlight.2014.

ISBN: 9781440334405

Drawing Made Easy.Barber.Arcturus.2013.

ISBN: 97817821210

Sketching Master Class.Rani & Ngah.Page One.2010.

ISBN: 9789812459350

Further reading

  • Basant Agrawal and C M Agrawal (2013). Engineering Drawing. Second Edition, McGraw Hill Education India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  • Paige Davis, Karen Renee Juneau (2000). Engineering Drawing
  • David A. Madsen, Karen Schertz, (2001) Engineering Drawing & Design. Delmar Thomson Learning.
  • Cecil Howard Jensen, Jay D. Helsel, Donald D. Voisinet Computer-aided engineering drawing using AutoCAD.
  • Warren Jacob Luzadder (1959). Fundamentals of engineering drawing for technical students and professional.
  • M.A. Parker, F. Pickup (1990) Engineering Drawing with Worked Examples.
  • Colin H. Simmons, Dennis E. Maguire Manual of engineering drawing. Elsevier.
  • Cecil Howard Jensen (2001). Interpreting Engineering Drawings.
  • B. Leighton Wellman (1948). Technical Descriptive Geometry. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
  • Engineering Drawing by N.D. Bhatt

Please note the editors of the A&R attempt to give the broadest spectrum of references but not all are available for consultation in an article. However by noting their existence it may assist students in their research.

*Items in italics non A&R library books.

5. Newest Acquisitions to A&R Library/Book Review

Date: 28/07/2015
Author: Charlotte & Peter Fiell
Title: Industrial Design A-Z

Industrial Design

Publisher &Date: Taschen.2000
ISBN: 9783822863107
A&R library copy: No

This book is thoroughly recommended.

It does what is says on the cover.

It features Lotus and helps benchmark other manufacturers [see listing below]

The publishers introduce the volume with this:-

“Industrial design synthesises engineering, technology, manufacturing, processes, materials and aesthetics into machine –produced design solutions which profoundly shape our environment.

From consumer products and packaging to transportation and equipment , this comprehensive work traces the evolution of industrial design from the Industrial Revolution  to the present day…………this is an essential reference work that provides detailed biographical and historical information with over a thousand colour illustrations.”

At over 760 pages it’s thorough, comprehensive and beautifully illustrated.

Although no single book on Industrial Design can be definitive, the editors consider for engineer/ designers with an interest in automotive design it could very well act as a standard reference work.

As the above definition confirms Chapman and his colleagues at Lotus were significant Industrial Designers.

Second hand copies at approximately £3 are extraordinary value. [The editor’s copy is on order whilst review is from library book]

The Contents are:-

  • Introduction
  • A-Z Designers and Firms
  • A-Z Themes and Materials
  • Case Studies
  • Time Line
  • Appendix including useful biography

As stated this work is brief and without jargon. The introduction is only two short pages but within this it sets out the context of the book and expands on what Industrial Design is. It’s worth quoting because it’s particularly relevant to an appreciation of Chapman and Lotus:-

“For over two hundred years, the products of mechanised industrial production have shaped our material culture, influenced world economies and affected the quality of our environment and daily lives. From consumer goods and packaging to transportation systems and production equipment , industrial products encompass an extraordinary range of functions, techniques , attitudes, ideas and values and are a means through which we experience and perceive the world around us…

Industrial Design –the concept of planning of products for multiple reproduction –is a creative and inventive process concerned with the synthesis of such instrumental forces as engineering, technology, materials and aesthetics into machine producible solutions that balance all user needs and desires within technical and social constraints.

Engineering –the application of scientific principles to the design and construction of structures , machines , apparatus or manufacturing processes – is an essential and defining aspect of industrial design…

And writing about manufacturers the Fiell’s comment

“Without their willingness to risk the necessary and sometimes massive investment demanded by the development of new products, there would be very little industrial design. Innovation and commercially –motivated yet socially –minded manufacturing companies are too often the unsung heroes of our material culture”

It’s against this definition and context the entries can be appreciated not least Chapman and Lotus.

The Motor /transport manufacturers listed include:-

  • Alfa Romeo
  • Aprilia
  • Audi
  • BMW
  • Bugatti
  • Caterpillar
  • Chrysler
  • Citroen
  • John Deere
  • Ducati
  • Euclid
  • Ferrari
  • Fiat
  • Ford
  • General Motors
  • Harley Davidson
  • Honda
  • Indian
  • Jaguar
  • JCB
  • Jeep
  • Kawasaki
  • Lamborghini
  • Lambretta
  • Lotus
  • Mercedes Benz
  • Messerschmitt
  • Nissan
  • Opel
  • Piaggio
  • Porsche
  • Renault
  • Saab
  • Toyota
  • Volkswagen
  • Volvo
  • Yamaha

Aviation and boats includes:-

  • Bell
  • Boeing
  • De Havilland
  • Lear
  • Lockheed
  • McDonnell Douglas
  • North American
  • Sikorsky
  • Zeppelin
  • Sunseeker
  • Individuals :C.Cockerell, Wright brothers, Reginald Mitchell

Designers and consultants [A&R Design Heroes italics]

  • David Bache
  • Bertone
  • Marcel Breuer
  • IK Brunel
  • Carl Breer
  • Mike Burrows
  • Harley Earl
  • R Buckminster Fuller
  • Ghia
  • Dante Giacosa
  • G Giugraro
  • Walter Gropius
  • Alec Issigonis
  • Paul Jaray
  • Erwin Komenda
  • Raymond Loewy
  • Alex Moulton
  • Pininfarina

Each of the entries is highly illustrated and this permits further research and is inspirational.

Of Lotus they comment:-

“It is true to say that every single car on the road and racetrack today owes some part of its design and engineering to the genius of Colin Chapman.”

This is an extremely useful, affordable and useful reference work for the serious student intent on conducting a forensic examination of Chapman and Lotus. It provides an immediate quality system of benchmarking. It also enables students to understand the other Industrail Design and consultancy that Lotus undertake.

It therefore comes highly commended.

And as in all good reference work it has a good bibliography. Within minutes of opening this volume the editor had checked this and made reservations from the local library.


6. Lotus Collectables

Toy Car Lotus Exige S 1:32


7. Lotus on Youtube

How It’s made: Lotus Evora – Dream Car


Editor John Scott-Davies

Editor Neil Duncan

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