Colin Chapman Museum and Education Centre Newsletter February 2013

Newsletter – Number 40

  1. Lotus photo’s you may not have seen.
  2. Museums around the world you may not have heard of: National Automobile Museum Andorra
  3. Questions from our readers,
  4. Lotus: Design Decades: 1970 -1979
  5. The art of Peter Hutton
  6. Lotus books one for the library
    6.1 Lotus Books (2)
    6.2 Film Review
  7. Lotus collectables
  8. Lotus interest on YouTube

All previous articles relating to these are held on the website.


1. Lotus photo’s you may not have seen.

Boxing day at the Romsey classics show.

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2. Museums around the world you may not have heard of:National Automobile Museum in Andorra

Address : Avinguda Copríncep Episcopal, 64
Zip code : AD200
City : Encamp – Andorra
Opening hours : Tuesday to Saturday 9:30am to 1:30pm and 3 to 6:30pm. Sunday, 10am to 2pm. Closed Monday. Holidays: closed on January 1st and 6th, March 14th, September 8th and December 25th, 26th and 31st.
Prices : Entrance: 3€ / Children free / Reduced prices
Phone : +376 832 266

National Automobile Museum in Encamp


National Automobile Museum

The National Automobile Museum is a museum that show us the evolution of this product along the years; from the Pinette’s steam engine in 1885 to the 70’s. With 80 different automobiles, sixty motorbikes and more than 100 bicycle, this is one of the most important automobile museums in the south of the continent.

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3. Questions from our readers


I’m not sure if you can assist but hope if not you can direct me.

My grandfather, I have been told worked for Vanwall and I am trying to find out if he worked directly on the F1 team.

As a F1 fan I am extremely interested to find out any association I may have with the unsung hero of British Motorsport.

His name was Harold Anton

Any assistance would be appreciated


Gary Anton


Hello Neil,

I found a link to your website in the Swiss Lotus Seven Owner Club.

I am running the Italian Lotus Seven Club www.lotus7club.it

We are doing the hard job of gathering all the Lotus/Caterham Seven owners in Italy.

It’s a hard job because we never had a stable dealer. Each dealer lasted a couple years then stopped the business with sevens, and all the contacts with their customers went lost…

Now we know about 100 seven owners in Italy. We calculate that there should be about 100 more around Italy.

Best regards


4. Lotus: Design Decades: 1970 -1979


This series has been created specifically by the A&R to explore how wider social and cultural events and design interacted. In particular it seeks to demonstrate the extent that Lotus designs influenced taste, fashion, identity and impacted on the world stage.
The additional purposes and opportunities are:

  1. Looking at realistic time frame show how the jigsaw and production/ income and competition success of Lotus varied
  2. Exploring the complex dynamics between design, society and manufacturing. Along the way we can analyse Colin Chapman as an entrepreneur manufacturer versus the engineer and motor sport strategist. [Team Owner]
  3. Not least the topic lends itself to exhibition where the many facets of the decade can be presented in context and interactively interpreted. This ought have considerable commercial opportunity for sponsorship

In future editions we will explore in turn the remaining decades of Colin Chapman and Lotus cars.

In this article we hope to capture some of the complex dynamics of the era .For some it is viewed as the start of a modern Britain. For others it divided the nation and created scars that have never been healed. The decade of the 70’s appears polarized. At its start there was still some Hippy Chick and Maharishi transcendental idealism and Hare Krishna processions through London, at the end the Punks. The film “A Clockwork Orange” is helpful introduction to the times and aspects of the mild anarchy / irreverence.
In the process it is hoped that the material presented can be assembled for a future interactive exhibition. This ought to graphically and memorably illustrate the power and impact that gave Lotus such a lasting, enduring design code, methodology and mantra.
This article includes a timeline in order that the respect historical and technological influences and forces can be seen in their interactive context.

Broad Interpretation of the Decade-The Abrupt Transition

The 20th Century quotes:
” For many people it was the decade of disillusionment. The years in which the heady idealism of the 1960’s the belief of millions of young people that they could really change the world, collapsed into cynicism and bitterness. From the ashes of revolutionary fervour arose the ugly phoenix of terrorism…[and continued] …… It was a decade of economic decline and industrial unrest in Western Democracies .The swingeing OPEC oil price rise that followed in the wake of the Yom Kippur War sent shock waves through the industrial world. In Britain the governments of right and left seemed equally unable to arrest the decent into economic chaos, of which the three day week working week and the “winter of discontent” became potent symbols”.

In the late 60’s and 70’s there were riots and rebellion. Britain experienced anxiety, instability, shock and alienation part brought on by the Oil Crisis. A portion of maturing youth reacted against consumerism, corporatism and multi nationals. We witnessed the early launch of the environmental movement ecological considerations and humanitarianism. There were other profound societal changes and divisions taking place.

In the late 70’s and 80’s the British pendulum swung away from the welfare emphasis to that of monetarism of the Thatcher era. Possible consistent with this economic view was the belief that manufacturing could not be saved nether could it compete with low wage Asian labour. The information technology era suggested that a nations economy might prosper from “invisible earnings” and the conduct/ administration of finance, banking, insurance, and the geometric spiral expansion of mortgage finance and credit. Risebero graphically illustrates the form and function / motivation that saw the era becomes one dominated by corporatism and the associated high-rise buildings e.g. the Nat-West Tower and the eventual emergence of Canary Wharf. Some of the other technological innovations of the era were fibre optics, microwave ovens, VCRS and at a later stage e commerce.

In the decade of the 70’ idealism and hedonism quickly died to be replaced by disillusionment most probably prompted by rapid economic decline. Inflation rose inexorably. Culturally and socially the previous newly established liberalism would extend and gay rights and a self-expression of the androgynous and Glam Rock through the feminist movement that achieved legal status. [Part of package that would eventually include Sex, Race and Equal Pay] .The 1970s possessed its own contradictions as pornography expanded and there were two significant obscenity trials- “The Little Red School Book’ and Oz 28 –School kids Issue.
The government attempted to modernize and the catch phrase was Modern Man and modern times. New materialism with ambition was hoped and expected but external world events particularly oil militated against much of this. Despite considerable economic difficulty Britain benefited from North Sea oil. However some might contend this was used to conceal or mitigate against the severe structural changes and unemployment. Its role palliative and hence many of the underlying problems still remain today.

During the 70’s Britain built some of its second generation New Towns like Milton Keynes and Peterborough. Along with these the movement of out of town shopping malls started [again a reference to the seeds of decline in town centers]. Gentrification continued in many cities and home ownership expanded in the new sub-urban areas aided by the growth of Building Societies and powerful property developers. Looking back it might seem that the inflationary property price spiral started in the 70’s property race.

Package holidays really started in the 70’s for those with the income to afford travel.
There were other significant societal changes. Some became concerned for the environment and a new craft tradition in design and manufacture occurred. Alongside this developed an anti war movement, feminism and Civil Rights

In 1979 Mrs. Thatcher became the first woman Prime Minister

Chronology and Time Line: – Major Social, Technical Cultural Events and Design Icons of the Decade. [Design/ science/ technical in Italic]


  • USA troops sent to Cambodia
  • The Equal Pay Act.UK
  • Ted Heath leads conservative government
  • Refuse collectors strike in London
  • British army in Belfast uses rubber bullets
  • Blacks and police clash in Notting Hill, London, UK
  • Jimmy Hendrix dies of drug overdose
  • The Beatles, Hippies and the Maharishi [Love Light and Peace]
  • Boing 747 enters commercial service
  • IBM floppy disc launched
  • First low cost optical fibre
  • Omstack Chair by Rodney Kinsman


  • Jesus Christ Super Star by Andrew Lloyd Webber.UK
  • Civil War in Pakistan
  • Rolls Royce declared bankrupt in UK
  • Greenpeace opposes nuclear testing
  • UK adopts decimal currency
  • Open University starts in UK
  • Hot pants fashion
  • Ms.magazine launched
  • Idi Amin policies have repercussions in UK
  • Voyager I&II space probe launched
  • Apollo 15 drive on moon
  • Soviet space craft docks with space station. Later 3 cosmonoughts die
  • Roger Tallon designs train for SNCF
  • Renault 5 launched
  • Experiments with electrical cars/ vans e.g. Compton Leyland Electricars in UK
  • Erskine Bridge over the Clyde
  • Second Mersey Tunnel


  • SALT talks
  • Miners strike, UK
  • Cosmopolitan magazine launched in UK linked to feminism movement
  • Poulson corruption trial in UK
  • Spaghetti Junction .UK
  • LCD watches launched
  • Nike company founded starting craze in running shoes
  • Texas introduce pocket electronic calculator
  • E mail invented
  • Frank Gehry’s Easy Edges and Wiggleside chair


  • First Oil Crisis; 70% increase in oil price leads to economic crisis in UK
  • UK joins EEC
  • Queen Elisabeth II opens Sydney Opera House
  • Value Added Tax introduced in UK
  • Invention of Spandex
  • NASA launches Skylab
  • Bic invents disposable lighter
  • Marin invents mountain bike
  • Firs commercial fax
  • Skylab launched and put in orbit
  • Verner Paton’s System 1-2-3 chair


  • First McDonalds restaurant in London. UK
  • Harold Wilson leads labour government later agree “social contract”
  • Miners strike
  • Gilda Meir re-elected in Israel
  • GM introduces catalyst converters
  • Spandex revoluntionises lightweight clothes
  • Smart card stores information
  • Us spacecraft Mariner photographs Mercury
  • Verner Paton’s Sitting Wheel


  • Vietnam War Ends
  • North Sea oil piped ashore
  • Sex Discrimination Act passed in UK
  • Suez Canal reopened
  • David Hockney holds exhibition in Paris
  • Famine in Ethiopia and Bangladesh
  • IRA bombings
  • Charles Jenks writes “Post Modernism”
  • Microcomputers for sale in USA
  • American and Soviet spacecraft dock
  • X ray body scanner developed
  • Craft Revival Smokers chair by Richard la Trobe-Bateman
  • IBM launches lazer printer
  • Bic disposable razor
  • Apple computer introduced
  • Solar heated house by Milton Keynes Development Corporation
  • Parker 25 Pen range by Kenneth Grange


  • Callaghan replaces Wilson as prim minister
  • America celebrates its bicentennial
  • Jimmie Cater elected US president
  • Riots in South Africa [Trouble in Soweto
  • Carl Andre’s “Low Sculpture” – fire bricks
  • Concorde makes commercial flight with BA
  • BR introduces high speed trains in UK design input from Kenneth Grange [Pentagram]
  • Viking I lands on Mars
  • Super computer
  • National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham
  • Shiro Kuramata’s glass chair and chest of draws


  • Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee
  • Bhutto People’s party launched in Pakistan
  • Death of Biko in South Africa
  • Elvis Presley found dead
  • Sir Freddie Laker launches Skytrain
  • The first mass produced personal computer launched –the Apple II
  • Chinese Ivory cutlery by David Mellor
  • Concept teaset by Martin Hunt


  • Us and china to establish diplomatic relations
  • Revolution in Afghanistan
  • Unrest in Iran
  • Phillips markets Laserdisc
  • Konica introduces first point to shoot auto focus camera
  • Vitro fertilization
  • Alessandro Mendini Prosut chair


  • Margaret Thatcher becomes Conservative Prime minister and first female post holder in UK
  • Seb Coe broke three world records
  • Evita the musical opens in Broadway
  • Disaster at Three Mile Island; US nuclear accident
  • Coup in Iran
  • Soviets invade Afghanistan
  • Prestel computer information service launched
  • Sony launch Walkman radio
  • The first spread sheet programme, called “VisiCalc” released
  • Compact disc
  • First laser printer
  • Laminated Birch chair by John Pinder
  • Ash Occasional Range by Dinah Casson
  • Tipster Chair by Robert Heritage & Roger Webb
  • Dafne folding chair by Gastone Rinaldi

Comparative Costs and Prices seen through 1971 AA motoring cost survey.

In 1971 the AA estimated that the cost of running a modest family saloon was between £8-9 a week. To run a mini for an average 10,000 miles a year cost £8.08 a week and a Viva or Cortina 1600 £9.55 a week. The RAC suggested a 2.3 -3 litre capacity 8.83p mile. The RAC figures included driving licence, insurance, road tax, petrol, oil, servicing, repairs, depreciation, garaging and membership.

Car Comparisons and Car of the Year 1971

The Car of the year is conducted by Car magazine. The 1971 awards in descending order were:

  • Citroen G8
  • Range Rover
  • Citroen SM
  • Volkswagen K70
  • Lamborghini Urraco
  • Triumph Stag
Car comparisons 1970 – detail “Motor” August 23rd 1973
Marque Model Price
Alfa Romeo 2000S’Velo’ £2949
Alfa Romeo Montreal £4999
Clan Crusader £1469
Datsun 240Z £2535
De Tomaso Pantera £6399
Ferrari 246 GT Dino £6000
Ferrari GTB/4 £10,490
Fiat X1/9 £
Ginetta G21 £1875
Jaguar V12 E Type £3580
Jensen-Healey £1931
Lamborgh’ Urraco £7567
Lamborgh’ Countach £16314
Lotus Elan Sprint £2436
Lotus Europa Spec £2436
Lotus Seven S4 £1487
Lotus Esprit £7883*
Maserati Bora £9831
Matra Simca Bagheera
M.G. Midget £988
M.G. B.GT £1547
Morgan Plus 8 £1966
Opel GT
Panther J72 SE £5285
Porsche 911S £6235
Triumph Spitfire £1067
Triumph TR6 P! £1605
TVR 3000M £2464
VW-Porsche 914 SC £2774
* And below not included in “Motor” article.


Alfa Sud £1399
Lancia Stratos £3437
Saab Turbo £7850
Range Rover £1998


Car Comparisons.1948-
Marque 1970’s


Alfa-R Montreal
Alfa-R 2000S’Velo’
Aston Martin DBS
Austin Heal
Bentley TI




Caterham Seven
Citroen SM
Clan Crusader
Costin Amigo
Datsun 240Z
De Tomaso Pantera
Facel Vega
Fairthorpe TX -GT
Ferrari Dino 246 GT
Ferrari GTB/4
Fiat Dino 2000
Fiat X1/9
Ford Escort
Frazer Nash
Gilbern Invader
Ginetta G15
Ginetta G21
Gordon Ke’
Hillman Avenger
Iso Lele
Jaguar XJ-S
Jaguar E type V12
Jensen Interceptor
Jensen Healey
Lamborghini Espada
Lamborghini Urraco
Lamborghini Countach
Lea Francis
Marcos Mantis
Maserati Ghibli
Maserati Bora
Matra Simca Bagheera
Mercedes B 280SL
MG Midget
Monteverdi HAI 450SS
Morgan Plus 8


Opel GT
Panther J72 SE
Porsche 911S
Reliant Scimitar
Rolls-Royce Corniche


Sunbeam Rapier
Triumph Stag
Triumph Spitfire IV
Triumph TR6 P1
TVR Tuscan V6
TVR M-Series
VW-Porsche 914 SC


Wolseley 18/85

Colin Chapman /Lotus

The decade of the 70’s continued with momentum and success. During the decade they became well established at Hethel. They produced the 72,Elite, 76, Elcat, 77,78,Esprit and 79 and enjoyed further collaboration with the Sunbeam Lotus. The Lotus engine was sold in some volume for the Jensen-Healey.
Along the way gaining a further World Championships [along with John Player sponsorship] and in competition design introducing “ground effect” and many other elements which have essentially remained to the present day. Lotus also went up-market in this period to compete against prestige marques competing in very difficult economic times. Their iconic status was reinforced with the inclusion in the Bond films.
However the new cars were possibly underdeveloped and there may have been quality issues. They were not a great commercial success. The oil crisis could not have been easily predicted and the British motor industry was rather bland and struggled through the period [see chart of comparisons and the socio- economic and political situation prevailing in UK]
The difficulty all carmakers faced included: –

  • Fuel Crisis – price petrol and disproportionate impact on larger engines and performance cars
  • Societal reaction against performance cars and their status and perhaps an increased demand for smaller cars [the Elite was relatively well placed with its economic engine]
  • Rising insurance
  • Safety concerns and legislation particularly in America with export implications
  • Emission controls again impacting on performance cars.
  • Introduction of VAT in UK.
  • Inflation

In the period Lotus was floated as a public company. [However there were multiple separate entities across the “family” group.] This proved to be mixed blessing .In the 70’s sales were poor. Lotus Cars declared a trading loss in 1975.
Chapman and Lotus would struggle even with consultancy income. Unfortunately we do not have access to the “books” and budgets at this stage but just a rough glance at the production figures in relation to estimated overheads is revealing. We don’t know the margins and certainly Lotus were not able to diversify or cross subsidies to a large extent. Despite the production difficulties Lotus did reasonably well on track. It would be good research to examine the interrelationship of budgets at this time. It’s a known fact that FI was increasingly scientific and development costs were rising dramatically across the board. Again it would be good research that discovered the exact funds provided by sponsorship .The feeling is that Chapman did well within the resources and it was creative input that provided the edge. Comparative analysis would provide a more informed and objective means of assessment.

Perhaps too analysis ought examine the relative costs of the competition cars and margins attached to the Sunbeam Lotus. Access to the accounts would be revealing but any researcher has to be realistic regarding the necessity of secrecy regarding these.

During the 1970’s Colin Chapman took an interests in motorboats but this was not particularly successful despite the improved performance concepts he introduced. The market was partly killed by the economic conditions outlined. It has also been suggested that production car manufacture suffered in this decade as Chapman seemed to concentrate his personal resources on FI.

Lotus Models 1970-79
Model No Year Introd’ Name













































Sunbeam L’
Total Estimated Production through decade including other models still in range
and including competition cars:


Lotus and Formula 1 Results.

  • 1970 Driver and Constructors Championship- Lotus –Ford 72/ J.Rint
  • 1972 Driver and Constructors Championship- Lotus -Ford/ E.Fittipaldi
  • 1973 Constructors Cup –Lotus-Ford
  • 1978 Driver and Constructors Championship-Lotus-Ford/ M.Andretti

Music /Pop

Individuals and Groups [tendency for groups to reduce through 1970’s]: –

  • Elton John
  • Rod Stewart
  • Queen
  • David Bowie [androgynous and Glam Rock]
  • The Kinks
  • Slade
  • Marc Bolan.T.Rex
  • Punk – Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Dammed
  • Bob Marley and reggae
  • Bay City Rollers and the Osmond’s
  • Pink Floyd
  • Fleetwood Mac
  • Simon and Garfunckle [Bridge Over Troubled Water]
  • Abba
  • Disco
  • Elton John
  • Sex Pistols

Italian designers set the pace in the 1970’s.The oil crisis impacted on plastics that had been very influential in the previous decade. For various societal reasons the 1970’s saw a reversion to individual craft production.

Designers and Design Icons of the 1970’s
Robin Welch
David Mellor
Peter Simpson
Frank Thrower
Kenneth Grange
Geoffrey Harcourt
John Makepiece
Fred Baier
Roy Adzak
Alan Peters
Clive Sinclair
Gae Aulenti
Joe Colombo
Studio 65
Alessandro Mendini
Gruppo Fiocco
Ettore Sottsaa Jnr
Enzo Mari
Anna Castelli Ferrieri
Mario Bellini
Verner Paton
Frank Gehry
Shiro Kurmata
Gastone Rinaldi
Conran Group

The Council for Industrial Design –Awards in 1971 included: –

  • Prefabricated steel pedestrian bridge by Butterley Engineering
  • Case for back projection of slides by Martyn Rowlands [made by Boots]
  • Avenger 16 power boat with glass-fibre-reinforced plastic hull by Avenger boat Co
  • Spate pump designed and made by W.R.Selwood Ltd
  • Children’s waterproof boots by Globoot Footwear
  • A tensile testing instrument designed by Roy Gray for Instron Ltd
  • Duke of Edinburgh prize to Derek Power for teaching equipment in field of particle physics.

Fashion and Designers

The decade opened with an extension of the “peacock revolution ” into androgyny and unisex. In many respects it became mainstream and closed with Perms, Punk and the Sex Pistols [parashoot tops, parka jackets Bondage trousers, T-shirts and Doc Marten shoes.] For a brief period there was an anything goes approach.

“Social upheaval and the workers strike in the 1970’s Britain encouraged bored working-class teenagers to rebel. Disillusioned by the status quo, disenfranchised youngsters called for social change through support for ant—establishment rock music”

Along the way there were some considerable contrasts ranging from mini to maxi through midi there was the daring demure hot pants and boots. There was the ‘layered look” and that of the Gaucho and Conceptual Chic. There were throwbacks to the Victorian era and the 1940’s as a possible return to tradition after the 1960’s.

The decade is associated with blue denim, bell-bottoms, safari jackets, camouflage wear, [e.g. Army Surplus] male sideburns, droopy mustaches and beards, platform shoes and leisure suits. Big was Beautiful. The arts, film and exhibitions influenced fashion in the decade .The Great Gatsby and Annie Hall had powerful impacts as did ethnic wear in particular orientalism and Chinese influences. Towards the end of the decade the cult of the body began to emerge. During the 1970’s women wore trousers more frequently.
Helmut Newton’s fashion photography was graphic, erotic and hard edged.

The 1970’s also witnessed a greater influence of Black culture and fashion.

Some of the designers most associated with the era are: –

  • Yves St Laurent
  • Ted Lapidus
  • Calvin Klein
  • Jean Patrou
  • Nina Ricci
  • Pierre Cardin
  • John Bates
  • Sonia Rykiel
  • Thierry Mugler
  • Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren
  • Roy Halston
  • Geoffrey Beene
  • Bill Blass
  • Ralph Lauren
  • Jean Muir
  • Barbara Hulanicki
  • Karl Lagergeld
  • Andre Courreges
  • Zandra Rhodes
  • Jean Allen
  • Laura Ashley
  • Mary Quant
  • Jamie Reid
  • Ossie Clark

* For precise and fast reference see Fashion Source Book-The 1970’s by Peacock.

Film, TV, Literature and Arts

The early 1970 witnessed the break up of the Beatles and John Lennon marries Yoko Ono. Yoko Ono in some respects represented the contemporary art scene. The Grolier Year book explains the phenomena as: –
“The stress today on kinetic [moving] art, shifting, kaleidoscopic patterns of light, illusory “op” art, “unfinished” works, transitory “happenings”, and creations consisting of several pieces that can be moved about and reassembled into other forms ………. “Audience participation” by means of which the artist can involve others as partners in his act of creation. The year 1971 saw many exhibitions of these kinds of modern art”
An excellent example perhaps being “silence “ at the Camden Arts Centre by Leoplaldo Maler.Pop Art was in vogue and Andy Warhol and Bridget Riley were amongst the major exponents.

During the 1970’s Hollywood countered TV with high grossing mass appeal blockbusters. Actors were accorded high public status. There were many memorable films.

The 1970s is an interesting decade to interpret through film. As the decade it self there is considerable polerisation start to finish. The attached list records some of the most memorable whilst recording the role of the Esprit in the 1977 “The Spy Who Loved Me” [see A&R articles on James Bond &Lotus connection] Motor sport also featured in 1971 Le Mans with Steve McQueen.
Clint Eastwood in the “Dirty Harry” series perhaps reflected a reaction against corporatism and increasing bureaucracy and corruption.
At the start of the decade there was Love Story, Ryan’s Daughter and The Go Between.
Britain was well represented in film by Ken Russell [enfant terrible] with his Women in Love, The Music Lovers and The Devils.
European directors made several memorable films including Death in Venice, Tristana, The Rite, and The Touch.

Year Title Year Title


Butch Cassidy and the S’






Texas Chain Saw Massac’




Blazing Saddles






Death in Venice


Monty Python and the ‘


Le Mans


One Flew Over the Cuck’


A Clock Work Orange


Taxi Driver




The Outlaw Josey Wales


Get Carter


The Man who Fell to Earth




The Spy Who Loved Me


Dirty Harry


Star Wars


Straw Dogs


Close Encounters ‘




Annie Hall


Last Tango in Paris


Saturday Night Fever


High Planes Drifter


The Dear Hunter


The Godfather




The Discreet Charm of ‘


Shaolin Master Killer


The Sting




Enter the Dragon


Apocalypse Now


Don’t Look Now


The Mother & the Whore


Books of the 1970’s


Papillon H.Charriere


Female Eunuch G.Greer


The Day of the Jackal F.Forsyth


Gravitys Rainbow T.Pynchon


Watership Down R.Adams


Tinker,Taylor,soldier,Spy J.Le Carre


The History Man M.Bradbury


A Dance to the music of T A.Powell


Shogun J.Clavell


Roots A.Haley


Hitchhikers Guide to the G’


The world according to Ca’ J.Irving


Sophie’s Choice W.Styron


  • Lloyd Webbers’s musical “Jesus Christ Superstar
  • Godspell

Major Cultural Exhibitions of the Decade

  • 1972-Tutankhamun Exhibition at British Museum
  • 1973-Chinese Exhibition at Royal Academy
  • 1978-The gold of El Dorado at Royal Academy

TV Programmes

  • Two Ronnie’s
  • I Claudius
  • Rising Damp
  • Faulty towers
  • To he Manor Born
  • Porridge
  • Colditz
  • A Family at War
  • Aquarius
  • Charles Angels
  • Six Million Dollar Man
  • Kojak
  • Casanova
  • The Onedin Line
  • Elizabeth R
  • Play for to-day
  • Pennies from Heaven
  • The Sweeney
  • The Good Life
  • The Fall and Rise of Reggie Perrin

Architecture and Construction

Dates Building/Design etc Location Architect/Designer


Genoa-Livorno Autostrada


Metropolitan Cathedral Brasilia Niemeyer


IBM Offices, Havant UK Foster Ass
1970-80 Byker Housing Estate New Castle Ralph Erskine


Barbican Centre [start] London


Aswan Dam, Nile Egypt


Louisiana Superdome USA


San Cataldo Cemetery Modena Aldo Rossi


Art Museum, Kitckyushu Japan Arata Isozaki


Transamerica Pyramid Pereira Ass


Bianchi House, Riva San V’ Mario Botta


Old Bailey Extension London McMorran& Whitby
1972-77 Pompidou Centre Paris Piano & Rogers


World Trade Centre New York Yamasaki


Sears Tower Chicago


Cement Works Barcelona Bofill


Willis, Faber &Dumas office Ipswich Foster Ass


Amundsen-Scott Station South Pole


CN Tower, Toronto Canada
1975-79 Athenaeum, Indiana USA Richard Meier


National Theatre London D.Lusdun
1977-84 Neue Staatsgalerie Stuttgart Stirling & Wilford


Sainsbury Centre, Norwich UK Foster Ass


Gehry Residence Los Ang’ Frank Gehry


National Gallery Washington Pei


House at New Castle Delaware Venturi


Abraxas Housing Develop Bofill


House of the Architect Frank Gehry


2,4,6,88 House Los Angel’ Morphosis Ass.


Transco Tower, Houston USA Johnson & Burgess
1979-86 HK&SB Hong Kong Foster Ass

The Proposed CCM&EC

The proposed museum believes that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.
For these reasons our Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. Its suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.
In particular exhibitions have a dual education and commercial role. Exhibitions provide the opportunity for merchandising in the widest context. This article has been developed with thought to maximizing merchandising.


This article has been deliberately lengthy. It was felt that the subject was worth it. Colin Chapman and Lotus have somewhat been the subject of denigration since DeLorean and this is unfortunate as it distorts the facts and achievement. This article has been written to achieve an objective balance and to explain wider cultural concepts and how Chapman and Lotus made a dynamic interaction.
It is hoped that our subscribers and particularly those not privileged to have lived through the era will better understand the profound forces of change that occurred and how Chapman succeeded in dictating the speed of change.
Chapman and his engineering supporters designed and constructed in an extremely difficult medium. It was not passive and performing on a single or limited range of functions. The requirement of the motorcar through its range as result of physical forces is enormous. They increase with speed, as does the need for safety. Not only was Chapman an engineer he was cultured man with finely developed aesthetic that would not allow him to produce ugliness .He would only accept elegance and functionalism harmonized.
When we assess his achievements against others this should never be overlooked.
In the A&R editors minds there is little doubt that Chapman was one of the foremost engineers and Industrial designers of the second half of the 20c. This achievement has been possibly masked by the fact that he was too busy in the process of creation and allowed winning to be his judge. It’s possible too those arbitrators of taste have struggled with an understanding of engineering and have preferred to elevate more modest and less complex pieces of machinery.
This article has also been constructed with the view to a thorough and detailed exhibition that is felt long overdue.
Achievement and status like many things are capable of manipulation. To ignore or denigrate Chapman’s achievement is counterproductive in Britain today desperately needing to produce engineers capable of providing innovation and employment.

In future issues we will explore the remaining decades. The A&R feels that one of the greatest omissions of authors writing about Lotus is the lack of the financial and economic analysis of the operation. The A&R will commit to this and if needed will make constructive models or projections and extrapolations based on known facts to better understand and interpret Lotus achievements. Not least will be that of exports. The analysis in the form of forensic accounting will enable analysis of profitability, productivity and Chapman as the entrepreneur; responding to changing markets and times; and not least on many occasions fighting for survival.

The editors have attempted a fair assessment of the era .We have tried to avoid antidote but welcome contributions as this might provide the experience that can bring such a study alive. Such contributions would be sought to complement any exhibition.

British Design Since 1880.Fiona MacCarthy.Lund Humphries.1982
SBN: 853314470
Collecting the 1970’s. Katherine Higgins.Millers.2005
ISBN: 1845331400
The Style of the Century. Bevis Hillier. Herbert Press.1998
ISBN: 1871569931
Design Since 1945. Thames and Hudson.1983
Industrial Design
David Mellor –Design.Teleri Lloyd-Jones. Antiques Collectors Club .2009
ISBN: 9781851496037
A Century of Design. Penny Sparke.Mitchell Beasley.1998.
ISBN: 1840000007
British Auto Legends.M.Zumbrunn.Merrell.2007.
ISBN: 9781858944944
Great Cars of the 20th Century.Brown.Langworth.Publications International.1991
The Car Book. Dorling Kindersley.2012
ISBN: 9781409378716
ISBN: 3791325868
70 Wonders of the Modern World. Readers digest.
ISBN: 02764223801
Architecture Source Book. Vernon Gibberd.Grange .1997
ISBN: 184013822X
Architecture. Borden, Taylor etc. Herbert press.2008
ISBN: 9780713688399
100 houses.Taschen.2004.
ISBN: 3822863122
Specialist Sports Cars. Richard Heseltine.Haynes.2001.
ISBN: 1859606903
The A&R articles on Industrial Designers.
Design of British Industry by Richard Stewart. Published by John Murray 1987 [ISBN 071954294
Britain in the Seventies. Ronald Allison.1980.Hamlyn.
20th Century Fashion. John Peacock. Thames and Hudson.1993.
ISBN: 0500015643
Fashion Source Book- The 1970’s.John Peacock. Thames &Hudson1997.
20thc Fashion. Linda Watson.Carlton.2003
ISBN: 1842227262
100 Ideas That Changed Fashion. Harriet Worsley.Laurence King.2011
ISBN: 9781856697330
Colin Chapman :Inside the Innovator by Karl Ludvigsen*
The Lotus Book by William Taylor*
The Year Book 1972 –a record of the events, developments, and personalities of 1971. Grolier.1972

* And italics Copies in Archive and Resource library.


Peter Hutton.


Sadly the editor does not have any biographical details of Peter Hutton. Peter is featured for the quality and range of his work – motorcycles and cars seems worthy of inclusion particularly as Lotus is well represented.
The other distinguishing feature of Peter’s work is that it takes aspects of technical illustration to new levels. Viewing his work I find my self questioning design solutions and posing questions.
Also deep within the engineering function there is an extreme beauty and Hutton is able to mine this.
I think Colin Chapman mantra of elegance would appreciate this type of illustration.
Be patient and take a considerable time to study this work. There is much to see and on more than one level as you explore more deeply and thoroughly.

Picture Subjects

Lotus 49 [Engine detail]

1986 Lotus Renault 98T
Lotus JPS
BRM P115
1927 Bugatti Type 35B.

Word Pictures.

The editor has selected two of the non-Lotus cars for description.
The BRM has been selected as it represents one of the peers/ contemporaries and rivals the Lotus. At the A&R we are keen to explore and evaluate through objective comparison and the BRM presents a valid opportunity.
The illustration of the Bugatti has been selected for its exquisite quality and the fact it complements our article on Icons and that of appreciating the aesthetic of the motorcar.

BRM P115

This is an exquisite jewel like painting. Part Andy Warhol –“Coke Can” photorealism with a touch of Heath Robinson.

The work is a masterful technical illustration with aesthetic underpinnings.

A painting full of contrast, black ink on white textured paper and all rippling reflections on polished bodywork, faithfully recorded.
This takes minute observation and considerable discipline to record.

The P115 is seen from the rear and the engine bay is therefore prominent and compositionally the prime focus. The artist has rendered both sets of exhaust. One just outlined in fine ink line and the other with grey wash as shadow covers matt paint. The editor accords and appreciates so much the creative skill and execution that permits so much subtle detail to be conveyed with so little input to achieve maximum visual impact and effect.

Both sets of upper wishbones are drawn in, but uncoloured. This helps illuminate other detail and does not overcrowd. It allows the viewer to participate and perhaps question what technical methods might be available.

The overall composition is triangular the strong base in the foreground and the apex being the tapered nose.

Hutton has recorded the subtlety of light and shade in an extraordinary way. It illustrates how surfaces are not uniform but “pick-up” and reflects images from their surroundings. Merely by his technique the artists conveys the elliptical body section

For the editor this is an extraordinary piece of work working and succeeding at technical, aesthetic compositional levels. Deeply satisfying, as I explore the work I pose the question “If only I could draw like that” for me it’s truly inspiring.

This work must take considerable patience and time. I suspect that original drawings may be to a very large scale and reduced for commercial sale.

The artist renders each material in the construction in a way it can be identified. Colour is important such as the use of maroon on the brake suspension system and steering wheel provide balance and focus within an overall composition.

The artist has a gift in that the subject is rendered faithfully without ego; affected style neither is it overworked or elaborate so to overload the viewer. As if the artists intends to assist a designer explore analyse and understand.

The picture is rewarding it invites entry and exploration. For he editor is deeply satisfying and rewarding. A work seemingly complete and incomplete. A subject that can be retuned to many times and fresh perspectives revealed.

It exists within and without the frame. Its appeal perhaps greatest to an engineer .It possesses its own inner aesthetic of colour and composition.

The editor mentioned the jewel like quality. This is possibly like a diamond with many facets. To view Peter Hutton’s work is to explore and view multiple facets.
It’s also an important introduction.
There may be many whom think a machine is functional without soul. To explore a picture like this could overturn such a view. It may also open eyes and open minds in a manner that allows interrelationships, colours, textures, form and function harmonised, combined and integrated.

1927 Bugatti 35B

In this picture all the qualities of Peter Hutton’s BRM are present.
Within an overall square composition there is a strong diagonal emphasis.

Hutton adopts his usual technique of detail with light wash. Not all the car is shown allowing the composition to “enter and leave the frame.” I.e. partial concentration of subject area in this instance only part of the cockpit is suggested.

The main focus is the engine revealed through the open bonnet. Looking straight at engine the viewer glimpses a jewel like mechanism like a fine chronograph watch. A great deal of materials and textures are deployed. They range from finned castings to highly polished cam covers, hard glass like mirrored chrome and burnished horseshoe radiator surround.

Hutton has captured the mirror quality with great realism. Note how the radiator shell picks up and reflects the headlamp bowls. Elsewhere the polished body and cycle guards reflect the fleeting clouds and sky. The rear view mirror reverses the aero screen.

The editor would suggest that Hutton has an empathy with the subject. He exercises an editing role and elects to focus on components whilst phasing or integrating them into a hierarchy of the whole. He seems to understand the essence of the subject and as a good translator helps the viewer understand. It would seem that Hutton could get inside the mind of Ettore Bugatti and represents the components as imagined or desired. The minute working components are like jewels set in a crown.

Again and with equal detail and attention as his other subjects Hutton captures the soul of the machine in its considerable sculptural and hierarchical magnificence. The author likes the fact that although each subject is static its inherent power and speed are imparted through a DNA that the artists succeeds in knowing. To look at the picture of this 35B and then close your eyes is to trigger memories and thoughts flood in of the extraordinary exhaust note rarely if ever replicated; hunting a tick over, the hovering rev-counter, to feel the engine heat build and the aroma of the circulating engine oil.

The pictures of Peter Hutton are not easy to reproducre for the newsletter however please visit http://peterhuttonillustrator.com/ they are sensational.

6. Lotus book. One for the library



Date: 26/12/2012
Title: Lotus Twin Cam Engine
Author: Miles Wilkins
Publisher &Date: Brookland 2012
ISBN: 9781855209688
A&R library copy: Yes

This is not a review as its felt that the technical nature is not best communicated in writing. This work is of the “Haynes Manual” type and very significant.
The editors are unable to comment on the technical accuracy of the information given by Wilkins.
However we would like to alert our subscribers to the fact that it is available within the A&R library.

The book is officially described as: –
A comprehensive guide to the design, development, restoration and maintenance of the Lotus-Ford Twin cam engine………..
Comprehensive data and “how to” guide to the Lotus –Ford twin cam engine as used in the Elan, Lotus Cortina, Europa and Ford Twin Cam Escorts.”

“Part 1: Concept, design and development, including the Big Valve engines
Part 2: Dismantling, reconditioning and assembly. Includes information on fuel and exhaust systems plus running –in procedure
Part 3: Specifications and technical data.”

The work is of approximately 235pp and also contains two appendixes.
It is very well illustrated as imagined and contains both technical detail and whole car pictures. There are also diagrams and exploded drawings, graphs, road test reports and information about carburettors and Ignition etc

First published in 1988 this work has been updated in 2011.

The editors respected Wilkins for tacking and devoting chapters to:
“Big valve engines –con or sales gimmick/ and
Exploding the myths.”

Although perhaps not many of our subscribers will wish to dismantle and rebuild a twin cam engine from this manual alone more will probably be interested in the history and development.

It’s well known that Chapman and Lotus used a number of existing engines until they developed their own. This allowed them to concentrate on what they did best. Reading this work will help understand context and perhaps wider issues of economics, competition, external dependency/ vulnerability and status.
For this alone the editors found it valuable.

In a forthcoming article the A&R will examine the use of bought in engines used by the specialist sports car makers past and present.

The Proposed CCM&EC

The proposed museum believes that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.
For these reasons our Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. Its suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.
In particular it’s suggested that the proposed CCM&EC retains a permanent library. That this is available for research and also as a commercial research service.
Additionally books can be retailed including both new and second hand.

Should any of our subscribers wish for more information on any book reviewed please ask.
The A&R editors are always receptive to suggestions for book reviews again please ask we will endeavour to help.



Date: 10/12/2012
Title: Engineering Design Principles
Author: Ken Hurst
Publisher &Date: Arnold 1999
ISBN: 0340598298
A&R library copy: Yes

This work comes highly commended. Although now slightly dated it remains relevant. Its strength rooted in clarity and brevity. This authorative work contains ten chapters, 160pages approximately with index and appropriate exercises. This work pertains directly to the Chapman design methodology and deserves to be read in detail.
The Chapters are: –
1) Introduction to Engineering Design
2) Problem Identification
3) Creativity
4) Concept Selection
5) Embodiment
6) Modelling
7) Detail Design
8) Design Management
9) Information Gathering
10) Presentation Techniques

The A&R promotion of the proposed CCM&EC is based on three core integrated and complementary objectives. These are: –
1) The critical interpretation of Colin Chapman’s industrial design
2) The creative and educational opportunities emanating with this
3) The commercial and income stream opportunities that ensure the first two objectives remain viable, independent and sustainable

On occasions one tem or subject contains all three. This is the case with Engineering Design Principles. The editors strongly commend this work to serious students of the Chapman design methodology and those concerned with Engineering and Product Design. In many respects the principles outlined can be applied to wider problem solving.

This work is written by an academic but the whole work remains practical and eminently adoptable and totally practical indeed functionally necessary.
Having studied this work a student can: –
1) Trace and identify the design methodology mantra and conceptual skills of Chapman
2) Grasp and understand some of the weaknesses/ omissions in his approach
3) Adopting and applying the principles outlined increase and improve design and problem solving performance.

Although written in 1999 this excellent book succeeds at all levels in delivering outcomes. The diagrams, presentation and exercises are invaluable. Examples of the motorcar are included. Hurst suggests the personal attributes of a design engineer are: –
ü Ability to identify problems
ü Ability to simplify problem
ü Creative skills
ü Sound technical knowledge
ü Sense of urgency
ü Analytical skills
ü Sound judgement
ü Decisiveness
ü Open mindedness
ü Ability to communicate
ü Negotiating skills
ü Supervisory skills

Discussing creativity Hurst explains Inversion, perhaps the greatest of Chapman’s conceptual skills but of almost equally and integrated with analogy, technology, morphological and information gathering.

The editors consider the great strength of Hurst book is its constant cross reference and emphasis to cost, quality, the disproportionate cost /impact of poor design at an early stage and frequent reference to the customer.
It’s possibly in the field of embodiment that Chapman was the weakest; particularly in the early days. There are probably explanations. These include, speed of introduction and reliance on hunch as opposed to extended market research. This of course might be more associated with an owner/ entrepreneur that a corporation. Hust outlines how such omissions might be avoided and recommends multi- disciplinary team working.
Hurst discusses modelling and in this area computerisation can make enormous contributions and perhaps the greatest progress has been made since his book was published. The chapters on Design Management contain many practical easy to follow and adopt flow charts.

Hurst has some important observations relating to value engineering. An A&R article will follow using the Lotus Seven Series four as an actual example conducted by the company.
The editor was very impressed with Hurst’s assessment of Value Engineering: –
“Value analysis is a technique which should be applied to all new design. It involves questioning everything associated with the design and manufacturing of a product with the aim of improving the value of the product .The essential difference between cost cutting and value analysis is broadly that it involves reducing the cost and /or improving the functionality of the product”
Hurst recommends the adoption of multi-disciplinary teams to undertake the exercise. He further suggests the major steps are: –
1) Definition of function [hierarchies, priorities and costs]
2) Speculation on alternatives [function, geometry, manufacture, materials]
Reducing the number of parts
Reducing number of manufacturing operations
Reducing complexity
Introduction of alternative materials
Use of standard or bought in parts
Elimination of redundant features
Relaxation of specified tolerances
Use of pre-finished materials
Rationalisation of product range
Reduction of machining and waste

3) Evaluation and Verification of alternatives

Hurst quotes “ Proof is required that selected alternatives will cost less, be easier to maintain or will increase performance and reliability”
4) Presentation

Hurst recommends the following design management principles: –
§ Planning
§ Control
§ Value
§ Quality
§ Review
§ Documentation

Overall this is considered a superb book. Readable in its own right it also works as a major incise tool for examining the Chapman design process and methodology. Having applied many of Hurst’s principles the cost of this book will be recovered many times over in time money materials and not least reputation!

The Proposed CCM&EC
The proposed museum believes that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.
The objectives of the proposed CCM&EC are linked, geared structured both vertically and horizontally. All are tried and tested for commercial application and income generation.
Engineering Design Principles is one of its foremost objectives delivering and unifying simultaneously the three fundamental stated objectives. The museum exhibits and archive providing the raw materials and examples for education, research, analysis, observation and comparison. The same materials can be adopted for interactive exhibitions and visitor engagement. The exercise of exploring Engineering Design is a fundamental of interpretation.
Additionally the proposed museum might market dedicated books, DVD, internet education programmes and learning opportunities including interactive games that generate / extend the Chapman design methodology and generally mind expand with greater creativity and problem solving capacity. These can be structured to various levels.
For these reasons our Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. Its suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.
In particular it’s suggested that the proposed CCM&EC retains a permanent library. That this is available for research and also as a commercial research service.
Additionally books can be retailed including both new and second hand.

Should any of our subscribers wish for more information on any book reviewed please ask.
The A&R editors are always receptive to suggestions for book reviews again please ask we will endeavour to help.



Date: 26/12/2012
Film Title: Cars That Made Their Marque: Lotus
Publisher &Date: NM TV Not stated
ISBN / CAT REF ETC: Not stated
Duration: 30 min. approx
A&R library copy: Yes

This short video is quite instructive and includes worthwhile footage. There seems to be on track and on board photography at Goodwood and possibly Hethel. Additional filming appears at MIRA and on the public highway.
Graham Arnold provides brief narration.
Integrated are a good selection of black and white archive photographs and moving image.

Graham Arnold conducts the main narrative and background. He openly relates Lotus financial difficulties of the 1970’s and how Colin Chapman’s health may have suffered as he attempted the near impossible task of keeping his F1 team competitive and his road car manufacture solvent.
Several owners and experts make observations about their cars. This includes Miles Wilkins [author of “Lotus Twin Cam Engine” – see A&R book review]

Film Clips
The video opens with some period photographs of the Mk.III and Mk.VI [SZ 9119] and then onboard film of the Lotus Seven Series 1 [HSK 227] at Goodwood. They’re a several lingering shots of the unpainted aluminium bodywork and construction details including dash.
This is followed by the Elite [YNX 773] on the public highway and of course the aesthetic of this model is acknowledged and reinforced when seen in motion.
Moving and static imagery of an Elan [GUV 164C] are included.

A brief archive picture of the Europa is included before the video penultimate clips are the Esprit G885 TFG and A1 TDF]

The video concludes with footage of the Elise on the banking possibly at MIRA with assembly in progress at Hethel. There are some nice images of the bare chassis. Reference is shown of the wind tunnel testing.

The Value and Importance
This is obviously a brief film but the on board and performance images are significant perhaps because they are not doctored or deliberate marketing or some of the extreme imagery that seems to have become obligatory. The film is not pretentious and of course there is selective inclusion. However it does take a reasonable and representative cross section of Lotus cars.
This brief film deserves wider audience and ought be seen in the context of stills, authoritative books and first hand examination of the real thing. It goes without saying that Lotus is truly rolling sculpture.

The Proposed CCM&EC
The proposed museum believes that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.
For these reasons our Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. Its suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.
In particular we propose selling film and related archive matter. This will be complemented my film shows, film evenings and themed mini display exhibitions etc.

Additional Reference:

6.1 Interest from Gary Critcher


7. Lotus collectables


Jim Clark signed Lotus 25 ‘in car’ magazine photo

An 8.5″ x 4.5″ colour magazine photo of Jim Clark driving the Lotus 25 car. The item has been hand signed by Clark, a rare signature from the legendary Scottish driver.

Available from Chequered Flag Collectables

8. Lotus interest on “Youtube”

One item on Youtube maybe of interest our readers

Amazing Battle – BMW 2002TI – Alfa Romeo GTA – Ford Lotus Cortina – GTC-TC´71

Thank you for your continued interest and support

Editors of the newsletter
John Scott-Davies
Neil Duncan
Jamie Duncan (webmaster)