Sponsor, Brands, Specialists and Suppliers: The Companies that supported the Chapman /Lotus Road & Racing Programme
Marston Excelsior: Merlin’s, Mosquitos and Marston
Figure 1: Editors photograph of the De Havilland Mosquito, note location of radiators in wing
Lotus cars sold
They were bought for their:-
- Performance –road or track
- Driving pleasure
- Reputation and image
- Owner identification /personality extension etc.
All the above were integrated within a total framework design.
The above list is heavily dependent on a select group of components [either bought in proprietary or in house manufacture] that delivered the desired outcomes and met strict criteria.
Many of these components often contributed significantly to the overall aesthetic, many are extremely functional and beautiful in their own right .They formed part of a complementary whole.
In this series we examine:-
- significant Individual components from all the marque types
- Briefly explain their role /contribution /evaluation
- Analysis form and function with regard to their integration, where appropriate
- Provide suppliers/specialist advertising materials where appropriate
Understanding Lotus’s use of proprietary parts provides invaluable learning opportunities not just historical but right up to the present day. These lessons are not just applicable to automotive engineers/ designers but to the wider Industrial /Product Design professions.
The Skillful and creative adoption, absorption and integration of components was a powerful factor in the Chapman design methodology and contributed significantly to both competition and commercial success. It also feed his ability to mutate parts and materials to his desired ends.
The use of components is a fundamental skill of the Industrial Designer and the direct provision of added value.
The exact interpretation of sponsorship in conjunction with Lotus is difficult to establish objectively. The appearance of a sponsor’s logo on a car is not necessarily evidence of financial support. Access to historical archive and contracts is sought wherever possible but with the passage of time and for various reasons these are not always available or accessible to the public.
This series also embraces the specialist suppliers to Lotus. We are particularly interested in those suppliers and products that have a connectivity with aviation.
In constructing the historic sponsor series, the A&R looks only at the logos worn in period and assumes the company involved had no objection to Lotus promoting their products. The A&R sees much to be gained by the wider promotion of sponsors but in the event that a specific organization disapproves for any reason that article will be removed.
Sponsorship is an instrument of mutual benefit and promotion. Subscribers might like to see A&R articles on Sponsorship and Product Placement to understand the numerical / financial reach provided by sponsorship with its ability to identify and project status through identification.
The principle continues particularly with regard to education based exhibitions [see below for details]
Each of these articles is devoted to a company/ organization that is believed to have sponsored or supplied specialist items to Lotus.
The intention of each article is to: –
- Explain the sponsors own history and outline their products and services – past-present and future
- Explain the historical connection with Lotus and the contribution made both in competition and the production cars
- To suggest how these two interlocking facets may be translated into exciting, interpretive, educational and commercial exhibitions
Subscribers might to see complementary and structured pieces to this article: –
- Primary sponsors like Gold Leaf / John Player Specials
- Product Placement
- Separate dedicated series on engines and gearbox
- Logo on Lotus
- Serk and IPRA and Sean
- Lotus 79 and May the Force go with You
- British Aviation, Museum’s and Chapman
Marston Company Profile /Abbreviated summary
From Graces Guide
“Of Wolverhampton and Leeds
1919 Excelsior Motor Radiator Co of Leeds was incorporated.
WWII Marston Excelsior made metal fuel tanks for Wellington Bombers and other aircraft; pioneered development of flexible non-metallic fuel tanks, and self-sealing covers through collaboration between ICI experts in dyestuffs, leather cloth, metals, paint and plastics .
1961 Designers, fabricators and sheet metal workers in aluminium and cuprous alloys, uranium, zirconium, tantalum, reinforced plastics and synthetic rubbers. Heat transfer specialists. Products include heat exchangers, pressure vessels, and pipework, bursting discs, special purpose machines, and industrial fans, flexible tanks for aircraft and bulk storage and transport of liquids. 
1969 Part of IMI Group”
Figure 2: From Graces Guide
In the Chapman/Lotus era the Company was identified with radiators for aviation and particularly cooling of the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine in various applications.
We believe that the following types were equipped with Marston Radiators:
Lotus 79 in Incandela.
Incandela devotes a detailed chapter and specification for the Lotus 79.
On the subject of water cooling he states:
“The water cooling system had a large single radiator mounted on the right hand side of the chassis.The original Marston had been replaced later on by aluminium Serk
Coolers of six of four rows according to the ambient track temperature and the coolers was joined to the engine ‘s water pump by two 1.25 inch diameter aluminium pipes connected with a rubber hose and jubilee clips combination…..
The system was filled up from an aluminium water pot located right at the back and on top of the chassis fuel tank….
The oil cooling system initially a single Marston, later a single Serk radiator mounted on the left side of the chassis, opposite the water cooler.Its positioning required rather long plumbing running to the bellhousing oil tank.
Both main radiators were secured to the sides of the monocoque by a tensioned wire arrangement which actually clamped the radiators onto the chassis.
The method was later changed by a single aluminium rod on each radiator.
The fiberglass air exit ducts were in one piece for each radiator, separate from the rest of the bodywork and consequently easily to adapt, sealing pretty well the surroundings of the radiators “
Figure 3: Cutaway drawing from the net, but also featured in Incandela .Drawing by Giorgio Paola. Note in Incandela the drawing is annotated item No 10 indicates the Marston oil cooler and No.11 the water radiator (1978 World Championship Lotus 79)
Figure 4: Note this cutaway drawing by Mick Hill of the Lotus 79 appears in Cotton.Item 15 indicates the radiator
# Note Cotton provides an additional photograph with the caption:
“The radiators were mounted on the sides of the monocoque as fuel tank was moved to the centre of the car. Bracing was required to keep them stable” (see Incandela’s remarks above)
Figure 5: This diagram can be used in learning exercises .Lotus 79
Period Address for economic geography exercise
Marston Excelsior Ltd
Marsten Motorsports Cooling
Our learning /educational opportunities are intended to be challenging thought provoking and requiring additional research and/or analysis.
These opportunities are particularly designed for a museum/education centre location where visitors would be able to enjoy access to all the structured resources available in conjunction with any concurrent exhibition.
Understanding the potential of componentry particularly proprietary items provides some of the following learning opportunities; in this instance we suggest the following might be appropriate:-
Specific to Marston
- See previous item in series including Serk and IPRA and Secan
- Using template above and side elevations in appendix below draw and annotate development of Lotus radiator design and location
- What is the size and value of the industry
- How has it changed? And what is its future 2020 onwards?
- Discuss the relationship with a multi-national mass-production car brand/manufacturer and its links, how and why did it come into existence?
- Use a technical dictionary where needed to define components and roles
- Was there a viable alternative to the part under consideration?
- Is what might it have been /cost?
- Examine the suppliers/specialist advertising what does it convey? And what is its iconography?
- Integrate this item with our series on the economic geography of motor sports locations and manufacturing bases
- Has the component had exposure at any motor shows?
- Does the company continue to supply classic/heritage parts?
- What changes in technology and materials have impacted on Lotus through its history?
- How does component design impact on form and function
- Does the supplier/specialist have aviation links? If so what?
- What is the importance of ergonomics and how does it influence modern automobile design?
- Does excessive safety/ and or ergonomics impact negatively on aesthetics
- What is the impact of standardization of platforms through mark ranges and indeed shared with other manufacturers? Could uniformity ultimately impact on sales even if economies of scale improved?
- Enumerate Lotus bought in components
- How has mass production and proprietary parts assisted the specialist car market?
- Produce an engineering drawing of a selected component and consider the specification of the materials and assembly process, costs and volume
- Explore an enumerate supplier/specialists components used in other Industrial Design fields
- How did the supplier/specialist extract value from their sponsorship/support?
- Explore Graces Guide for further background detail
- Study the economic geography of the British auto industry what factors determined locations?
- What have been the causes of change and circumstance that have impacted on British motor industry?
- What has been the role of F1 /motor sport valley based around Bicester?
- What is the importance of outsourcing to the motor industry?
- Study a British car specialist like Morgan, TVR, Ginetta or Lotus where do they source parts? What are the advantages?
Exhibitions, Education, Economics and Entertainment
In the museum context the editors believe that commercial considerations are both necessary and complementary with its educational objectives.
For these reasons our suggested outline Business Plan includes provision for promoting products and services which share Chapman’s ideals of mechanical efficiency and sustainability. In addition we propose merchandising that explain and interprets the social and cultural context of Chapman’s designs in period. It’s suggested there will be catalogue for on line purchasing.
In this instance we suggest the following exhibition titles might be appropriate:-
Figure 6: Image from the net
See Serk and IPRA and Sean
- Lotus Parts: Past ,Present Future
- Lotus Parts: The Winning Factor
- The Principle Part
- Act the Part
- Assign the Part
- Lotus Components
- Lotus Components :Parts and Parcel
- Lotus Sponsors, Specialist and Suppliers:Form,Function and Forte
- Lotus Components:Parts and Partiality
- Lotus Aesthetics : With little to spare
- Lotus Cars: Spare and Slender
- Product launch with title of dedicated specific relevance
Conclusion: “The whole is greater………”
There can be little doubt about the significant contribution made by Marston.
They assisted Chapman/Lotus achieve F1 World Championship, the last dramatic creative leap by Chapman and his team prior to his premature death.
Cimarosti simply explained of 1978 F 1 season:
“Lotus Wing Car dominates. Mario Andretti and the Lotus 79 are undisputed World Champion. Most designers copy the Lotus “wing car” concept.
Avoiding repetition subscribers are invited to study our dedicated articles on the Lotus 79 and its theory and practice. The radiators were material to its concept.
Marston as we record have aviation connection. The Lotus 79 borrowed from the Mosquito radiators.
Components were material to reliability and competitiveness.
We believe that the Marston name has evolved into the present and retain aerospace, aviation and motor racing provision.From related website:
“Supplier of high performance-oil coolers, radiators, intercoolers and heat exchangers to, F1, Indy, Rally, GT and Sports Cars. Marston Aerospace provides a wide range of heat transfer and fluids management products and services for the military and commercial aerospace markets, motorsport and electronics industries. Our ability to provide customers with an integrated approach to the development of value added systems, subsystems and equipment has made us a leader in heat transfer and fluids management systems. Industry leading developments continue to keep the company at the forefront of aerospace technology and we are currently part of some of the major new programmes in the industry including A320NEO, C-Series, MRJ and 787. Today, we operate as an autonomous business unit within UTC Aerospace System, Electric, and Environmental & Engine Systems. United Technologies Aerospace System is part of United Technologies Corporation (UTC). UTC is a diversified company whose products include United Technologies Corporation (UTC) aerospace systems and industrial products, Carrier heating and air conditioning, Otis elevators and escalators, Pratt & Whitney aircraft engines, UTC Fire & Security systems and UTC Power fuel cells.
More info: www.hsmarston.co.uk “
Chapman’s design and manufacturing methodology rather confirms the adage that “the whole can be greater than the sum of the parts”.
It’s an interesting an important study to consider deployment of components. It contributes to aesthetics, assembly economics and sales [attractive components/ known accepted performance and servicing ability etc.]
It is equally and mutually relevant and beneficial to the component manufacturer.
Chapman and his colleagues often took the best / most appropriate mass produced item and almost reinvented it in its service to design objectives. In this manner many components acquired a new status and indeed their aesthetic was enhanced surrounded by the Chapman conceptual whole.
It’s also extremely significant how many of these components were also used in Lotus competition cars. This created a powerful dynamic and interrelationship. Many components:-
- Performed well in competition gaining beneficial publicity and sales
- Both the component and racing reputation carried through to road cars and assisted sales
- The component manufacturer gained disproportionate publicity and assisted products sell in other applications
- All together a beneficial spiral was commenced. Publicity of the era often opted to highlight the Lotus dimension in publicity material. In fact there was a powerful synergy.
The relationship between Lotus and is sponsor specialist suppliers is significant and worthy of close study and has lessons for Engineering, Industrial Design and Manufacturing disciplines.
Along the way it’s possible too to study the wider British motor component industry and how it has helped foster the specialist car manufacturers.
Sponsorship is a worldwide phenomenon of immense commercial impotence. Both to host and sponsor organization.
With the Passage of time it’s likely to become more sophisticated and focused and the internet /multimedia technology will play greater role.
Sponsors have existed in motorsport before Chapman but he vigorously exploited the concept with Gold Leaf c 1967/68 and set a pattern for others to follow.
Sponsors of Lotus were likely to benefit financially and in terms of exposure to an extent greater than their investment. The benefits were, and remain essentially similar to present day:-
- Access to mass international audience consistent with mass production distribution marketing branding etc.
- Demographics of viewing audience and interest groups
- Additional subsidiary /secondary advertising through media, news, magazines etc.
- Identification with market /brand /marque leader in both F1 and road cars
- Association with success and continuity evolving, developing technology, materials etc.
- In period the identification with the charm ,charisma and ability to articulate that Chapman possessed
- All the attendant glamour , drama ,danger ,and spectacle of F1
- Ability to provide conducive hospitality to conduct business
- Cost effectiveness of audience cost ratio
- Possible further complex corporate benefits
Appendix 1: Context and operation of sponsorship from the net:-
- Learn how sponsorship motives have evolved.
- Be able to differentiate between advertising and sponsorship.
- Learn the advantages of each of the key promotion tools.
- Identify the six categories of sponsorship opportunities.
- Distinguish between self-evident and strategic linkages.
- Learn the trends in spending on sponsorships.
- Gain insight as to how ambush marketing and leveraging play roles.
- Develop a basic understanding of the three special cases of sponsorship.
- Identify the five key sponsorship objectives.
- Learn the importance of each sponsorship objective.
- Understand the concept of matching.
- Learn the potential components of a sponsorship plan.
- View a comprehensive example of a sponsorship.
Gain an awareness of controversies regarding sponsorship.
Appendix 2 F1 and related racing results
Appendix 3: Radiators Location
Marks of Excellence.P.Mollerup.Phaidon Press.1997.
Internet websites and local History
Aircraft of the Fighting Powers.Cooper&Thetford.Vol.1.Aircraft [Technical] Publications.1940.
An extensive bibliography is provided in A&R article on John Players Specials/Gold Leaf
Industrial Design A-Z.C&P Fiell.Taschen.
Art of the Formula 1 Race Car. Mann, Codling.Motorbooks.2010
Lotus 24, 25, 28, 29, 33.Unique.
Lotus 49, 49B, 49C, 49F.Unique.
International Corporate Identity.Olins.Laurence King.1995
International Motor Racing 1978.Ed by B.Gill.Macdonald and Jane’s.1978
The International Motor Show. Offical Catalogue.1966
Motor Racing Directory 1955-56 [Ed by staff of “Motor Racing”] Pearl Cooper.
Motor Racing Directory.Kettlewell.
Autosport A-Z Motorsport Directory. [Annual editions] Haymarket
Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology.Hillier & Pittuck.Hutchinson.1967.
Colin Chapman.Lawrence Breedon.2002.
Coventry Climax Racing Engine’s.Hammill.Veloce.2004.
Lotus, Coventry Climax and Cosworth Engine’s.Pitt.Unique.
The Anatomy and Development of the F1 Racing Car.Incandela.Haynes.1982.
The 1000 BHP GP cars.Bamsey.Haynes.1988.
De Havilland Mosquito.Falconer and Rivas.Haynes.2013.